Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Respiratory System. Parts of Respiratory System Nasal Cavity Pharynx Epiglottis covers the opening to trachea during swallowing Glottis "— Presentation transcript:
Parts of Respiratory System Nasal Cavity Pharynx Epiglottis covers the opening to trachea during swallowing Glottis Opening under the epiglottis Larynx Made of cartilage that contains the voice box Trachea Breathing tube in the front of neck. Has cartilage rings that keeps it open
Trachea branches into two tubes. One tube goes to the right lung and the other tube goes to the left lung. These tubes are called the Bronchi (single is Bronchus). The Bronchi then branch into smaller tubes in the lungs called the Bronchioles. The bronchioles end at little sacs called Alveoli. It is at the alveoli that gas exchange with the blood is done.
More Parts of Respiration The lungs are in the Thoracic Cavity. The Rib cage form the top and sides of the thoracic cavity. The bottom of the thoracic cavity is maintained by the diaphragm. This is a large dome shaped muscle. The Lungs are encased by a membrane called the Pleural Membrane. The pleural membrane made up of two membranes.
Problems About Breathing This is the most common way for a person to get germs into their body. – So therefore the body filters the air before it enters the lungs. Filtering Air 1.Air moves into nasal cavity and thick hairs, mucus, and cilia. 2.Cilia cover the trachea and move things upward
Cilia move dust, mucus, and food bits that went down the breathing tubes up. When there is enough debris that has moved up into the pharynx then it is either swallowed or spat out.
Air is warmed and made moist before it gets too the lungs. – It is warmed by the blood that moves through the lungs – Its is moistened by the wet surfaces of the passages of the lungs.
So what do the Pleural Membranes do? The pleural cavity has a slightly lower pressure than the atmosphere. Why do the pleural membranes have a lower pressure? Research it Page 290
The lower pressure in the pleural membranes create a lower pressure This lower pressure stops from lungs from collapsing. A collapsed lung can not get any oxygen. If someone has an accident and gets their pleural membrane broken then a common thing to happen is a collapsing of a lung
How we breath There are two parts that are involved in breathing 1.Breathing in Inhalation Inhale 2.Breathing out Exhalation Exhale
Inhalation Starts in the Brain in a place called the respiratory centre in the Medulla oblongata There are special nerves that detect chemicals. These nerves are called chemoreceptors. These particular chemoreceptors detect carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrogen ion (H + ) levels. These chemoreceptors are located in in the carotid arteries (carotid bodies) and are in the aorta (aortic bodies)
When carbon dioxide levels and hydrogen ions are at high levels the chemoreceptors send a message to the respiratory centre and the rate and depth of breathing increases. The respiratory centre sends a message to the diaphragm and the muscles of the rib cage. The diaphragm contracts and moves down this causes the thoracic cavity to increase size The rib muscles contract the external intercostal muscles contract and this causes the rib cage to become wider and increases the size of the thoracic cavity This increase in the thoracic cavity size and volume creates negative pressure ( or a vacum) in the lungs and air rushes in. negative pressure because intrapleural pressure is even less
Exhalation The respiratory centre stops sending nervous signals this causes the diaphragm and the rib cage to relax and they return to their normal shapes They return to their normal shapes because of elastic forces the body pushing in on the lungs You can force extra air out if you contract the internal intercostal muscles. This forces the ribs cage to become smaller and forces the ‘guts’ to push up against the diaphragm and therefore pushes air out
There are also stretch receptors in the lungs. When the lungs are breathing in the alveoli have stretch receptors and if they get too big then the respiratory centre stops sending its signal
Two types of Respiration 1.External Respiration – This refers to the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood 2.Internal Respiration – This refers to the exchange of gases between the blood and Tissues in the body
External Respiration The pressure of CO 2 in the blood is higher than that of the air. So CO 2 moves from blood to air. Most of the CO 2 is carried as bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) Carbonate ions combine with a hydrogen ion to form hydrogen bicarbonate. This is then turned into water and carbon dioxide
H + + HCO 3 - H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2 This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase Hemoglobin is carrying no oxygen and is referred to as deoxyhemoglobin
Oxygen concentrations are higher than that of the blood in the lungs so there is a pressure for oxygen to move into the blood Red blood cells take up the O 2 and the hemoglobin is referred to as oxyhemoglobin Hb + O 2 Hb + O 2
Internal Respiration Oxyhemoglobin gives up its oxygen and it then moves into tissues Hb O 2 Hb + O 2 Carbon dioxide diffuses into blood from the tissues because of the pressure difference
Hemoglobin takes up a small amount of CO 2 The Hemoglobin that takes up CO 2 creates carbaminohemoglobin Hb + CO 2 Carbaminohemoglobin Most of the CO 2 is taken up by the water in the plasma and it forms carbonic acid CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 -