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Skeletal System. 206 bones Functions 1. Supports body and provides shape 2. Protects internal organs 3. Movement and anchorage of muscles 4. Mineral storage.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System. 206 bones Functions 1. Supports body and provides shape 2. Protects internal organs 3. Movement and anchorage of muscles 4. Mineral storage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System

2 206 bones Functions 1. Supports body and provides shape 2. Protects internal organs 3. Movement and anchorage of muscles 4. Mineral storage (Calcium and Phosphorus) 5. Hemopoiesis (red marrow of the bone is the site of blood cell formation – red marrow is in long bones (epiphyses), sternum and ilia).

3 Bone formation 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system3 Microscopic mature bone cells Osteocytes = mature bone cell Osteo = bone Cyte = cell

4 Bone formation Ossification – new minerals deposit to form bone Begins at 8 weeksgestation Minerals replace previously formed cartilage. 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system4

5 Bone formation Infants bones are soft and pliable because of incomplete ossification. As bones ossify, they become hard. Long bones grow in length and ossify from the center to the ends. 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system5

6 Know the following…. Osteocytes = mature bone cells Osteoblasts = cells that actually form bone Osteoclasts = cells that tear down old bone 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system6

7 Bone formation 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system7

8 Types of Bones 8 Long bones Found in the arms and legs Diaphysis – shaft Epiphyses – ends Medullary cavity – center of shaft, filled with yellow bone marrow, which is mostly fatty cells, also cells that form white blood cells Endosteum- lines marrow cavity

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10 Chewing with movable skull bone = mandible Occipital bone connects with spinal column

11 Axial Skeleton Skull frontal view What are the structures of the frontal view of the skull. 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system11

12 Axial Skeleton Skull lateral view What are the structures of the lateral view of the skull. 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system12

13 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system13

14 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system14 Axial – skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, hyoid (u-shaped bone in neck to which the tongue is attached) Appendicular – shoulder girdle, arms, pelvis, legs (126 bones total)

15 Axial Skelton 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system15 Hyoid Bone What is unique about the hyoid bone?

16 Vertebral Column

17 Spine – Vertebral Column Encloses the spinal cord Vertebrae – separated by pads of cartilage Intervertebral discs Cervical Vertebrae (7) Atlas – 1 st cervical vertebrae Axis – 2 nd cervical vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Lumbar Vertebrae (5) Sacrum Coccyx

18 Appendicular Skeleton 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system18 Shoulder girdle Clavicle, scapula, humerus

19 Appendicular skeleton Clavicle = collar bone Scapula = shoulder blade Humerus = upper arm Radius and ulna = lower arm (radius = thumb side) Carpals = wrist bones held together by ligaments

20 Metacarpals = hand bones Phalanges = fingers Pelvis = 3 bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis) Femur = upper leg, longest and strongest bone in the body 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system20

21 Tibia and Fibula = lower leg (tibias touch – tibia is larger of the two bones) Sternum = breast bone Patella = kneecap Tarsal bones = ankle bones Calcaneus = heel bone Metatarsals = foot bones

22 Appendicular Skeleton 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system22 Pelvis Pelvic girdle = ilium, ischium and pubis

23 Joints Joints are points of contact between 2 bones- classified according to movement: Diarthrosis – movable Amphiarthrosis – partially movable Synarthrosis – immovable Articular cartilage – covers joint surface Synovial Fluid – lubricating substance in joints

24 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system24

25 Joints Ball and socket One bone has a ball at one end The other has a concave socket Allows for the greatest range of motion Ex: shoulder 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system25

26 Joints Hinge joint Move in one direction 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system26

27 Joints: Diarthroses 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system27 Example of a hinge joint. Define uniaxial… permits movement in one axis only

28 Joints Pivot joints Bones that rotate across each other 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system28

29 Joints Gliding joint Bones with flat surfaces that slide across each other i.e. bones in ankle and hand 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system29

30 Joints 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system30 Amphiarthroses Partially movable joints

31 Joints 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system31 Synarthroses Immovable joints Connected by fibrous connective tissue

32 Bursa and Synovial Membrane 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system32 Bursa Fluid-filled sac that contains the synovial membrane Lined by synovial membrane

33 1.02 Remember the structures of the skeletal system33 Synovial membrane Capsule that encloses a joint Lines the bursa Contains synovial fluid Bursa and Synovial Membrane

34 Types of movement Flexion is a position that is made possible by the joint angle decreasing.

35 Extension A movement of a joint in which one part of the body is moved away from another.movement i.e. going from sitting to standing

36 Abduction A motion that pulls a structure or part away the midline of the body. Adduction A motion that pulls a structure or part towards the midline of the body

37 Circumduction The circular or a more precise movement of a body part, such as a ball-and- socket joint or the eye.ball-and- socket jointeye

38 Rotation A motion that occurs when a part turns on its axis. i.e. shaking your head “no”

39 Pronation A rotation of the forearm that moves the palm from an anterior- facing position to a posterior-facing position, or palm facing down.

40 Supination The opposite of pronation, the rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces anteriorly, or palm facing up.

41 Arthritis Arthritis = An inflammation of one or more joints. Osteoarthritis- degenerative, occurs with aging, 80% of Americans suffer, joints become enlarged and painful 41 Disorders of the Skeletal System

42 Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis = A chronic, autoimmune disease = joints become swollen and painful, joint deformities common 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system42 Disorders of the Skeletal System

43 Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis

44 Gout Increase of uric acid deposited in joint cavity, mostly the great toe in men. 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system44 Disorders of the Skeletal System

45 Osteoporosis- most of those affected are women. Mineral density of bone is reduced 35% – 65%. The loss of bone mass leaves the bone thinner, more porous and more prone to fracture. (soft like a sponge) 45 Disorders of the Skeletal System

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47 Osteoporosis How do you think osteoporosis treated?. Why is her height decreasing? 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system47 Disorders of the Skeletal System

48 Rickets Found in children, caused by lack of vitamin D, bones become soft. Is this a common problem in the US? Why or why not? 48 Disorders of the Skeletal System Normal legs

49 Abnormal spinal curvatures Kyphosis Lordosis Scoliosis 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system49 Disorders of the Skeletal System hunchback swayback

50 Dislocation Separation of bones in a joint Subluxation = partial separation (dislocation) 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system50 Skeletal System Trauma

51 Fracture- a break in a bone Treated by: Closed reduction- cast or splint applied Open reduction- surgical intervention with devices such as wired, metal plates or screws to hold bone in alignment Traction- pulling force used to hold the bone in place Used for fractures of long bones 51 Skeletal System Trauma

52 Closed or simple bone broken, broken ends don’t break skin Open or compound broken bone pierce the skin, can lead to infection Greenstick in children, bone bent and splintered but never completely separates Comminuted splintered or broken into many pieces Spiral bone twists, resulting in one or more breaks 52

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