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Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Skeletal System

2 Slide 5.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments (bone to bone)  Tendon (bone to muscle)

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4 Functions of Bones Slide 5.2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Support of the body  Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles  Storage of minerals and fats  Blood cell formation

5 Bones of the Human Body Slide 5.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The skeleton has 206 bones  Two types of bone tissue  Compact bone  Spongy bone Figure 5.2b

6 Structures of a Long Bone Slide 5.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Periosteum  Sharpey’s fibers  Arteries Figure 5.2c

7 Changes in the Human Skeleton Slide 5.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  In embryos, the skeleton is cartilage  During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone  Cartilage remains in isolated areas  Bridge of the nose  Parts of ribs  Joints

8 Types of Bone Cells Slide 5.15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Osteocytes  Mature bone cells  Osteoblasts  Bone-forming cells  Osteoclasts  Bone-destroying cells  Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium

9 Bone Fractures Slide 5.16 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  A break in a bone  Types of bone fractures  Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin  Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin  Bone fractures are treated by immobilization  Realignment of the bone

10 The Axial Skeleton Slide 5.20a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Forms the longitudinal part of the body  Divided into three parts  Skull  Vertebral column  Bony thorax

11 The Axial Skeleton Slide 5.20b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6

12 The Skull Slide 5.21a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Two sets of bones  Cranium  Facial bones  Bones are joined by sutures  Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

13 The Fetal Skull Slide 5.27a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length Figure 5.13

14 The Fetal Skull Slide 5.27b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Fontanelles membranes connecting the cranial bones  Allow the brain to grow  Convert to bone within 24 months after birth Figure 5.13

15 The Vertebral Column Slide 5.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Vertebrae separated by discs  The spine has a normal curvature Figure 5.14

16 Structure of a Typical Vertebrae Slide 5.29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.16

17 The Bony Thorax Slide 5.31a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Forms a cage to protect major organs Figure 5.19a

18 The Bony Thorax Slide 5.31b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Made-up of three parts  Sternum  Ribs  Thoracic vertebrae Figure 5.19a

19 The Appendicular Skeleton Slide 5.32a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Limbs  Pectoral girdle  Pelvic girdle

20 The Appendicular Skeleton Slide 5.32b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6c

21 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Slide 5.33 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Composed of two bones  Clavicle – collarbone  Scapula – shoulder blade  These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

22 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Slide 5.34a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.20a, b

23 Bones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.35a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The arm is formed by a single bone  Humerus Figure 5.21a, b

24 Bones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.35b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The forearm has two bones Ulna Radius Figure 5.21c

25 Bones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.36 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The hand  Carpals – wrist  Metacarpals – palm  Phalanges – fingers Figure 5.22

26 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle Slide 5.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Hip bones  The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis  Protects several organs  Reproductive organs  Urinary bladder  Part of the large intestine

27 The Pelvis Slide 5.38a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23a

28 Gender Differences of the Pelvis Slide 5.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23c

29 Bones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.40a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The thigh has one bone  Femur – thigh bone Figure 5.35a, b

30 Bones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.40b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The leg has two bones  Tibia  Fibula Figure 5.35c

31 Bones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The foot  Tarsus – ankle  Metatarsals – sole  Phalanges – toes Figure 5.25

32 Joints Slide 5.43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Articulations (Movement) of bones  Functions of joints  Hold bones together  Allow for mobility

33 Structural Classification of Joints Slide 5.45 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Immovable joints example – Bones in skull  Slightly movable joints example – joints between vertebrae  Freely Movable joints example – shoulder, knee

34 Types of Movable Joints Slide 5.52a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29a–c

35 Types of Movable Joints Slide 5.52b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29d–f

36 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints Slide 5.53 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Bursitis – inflammation usually caused by a blow or friction  Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths  Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints  Over 100 different types  The most widespread crippling disease in the United States

37 Clinical Forms of Arthritis Slide 5.54a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Osteoarthritis  Most common chronic arthritis  Probably related to normal aging processes  Rheumatoid arthritis  An autoimmune disease – the immune system attacks the joints  Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints  Often leads to deformities


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