2BONES FUNCTIONS Supports body and provides shape. Protects internal organs.Movement and anchorage of muscles.Mineral storage. (Calcium and phorphorus)Hemopoiesis
3OSTEOCYTE – mature bone cell OSTEOBLAST-Immature bone cell
4BONE FORMATION Embryo skeletal starts as osteoblasts (primitive embryonic cells) – then change to cartilage.At 8 weeks, OSSIFICATION begins. (Mineral matter begins to replace cartilageInfant bones soft because ossification not complete at birth
5FONTANEL - Soft spot on baby’s head Will ossify (become hard bone) around 18 months of age
6STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE DIAPHYSIS – shaft EPIPHYSES – ends MEDULLARY CAVITY – center of shaft, filled with yellow bone marrow, which is mostly fat cells, also cells that form white blood cells.
7ENDOSTEUM – lines marrow cavity Shaft is made of COMPACT BONE – ends are SPONGY BONE. Ends contain red marrow where red blood cells are made.PERIOSTEUM – tough, outside covering of bone – contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves.
13Ribs and SternumSternum divided into 3 parts – bottom tip is XIPHOID PROCESS 12 pairs of ribs – first 7 are true ribs – connected to sternum by cartilagenext 3 are false ribs – cartilage connects them to 7th rib (not sternum)next 2 are floating
14Appendicular Skeleton Shoulder Girdleclavicle – collar bonescapula – shoulder bladehumerus – upper armradius and ulna – lower arm
15Wrist/Hands Bones carpals – wrist bones – held together by ligaments metalcarpals – hand bonesphalanges – fingers
16Pelvic Girdlepelvis – 3 bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis)
17Leg Bones femur – upper leg, longest and strongest bone in body tibia and fibula – lower legpatella – kneecap
19JOINTSJoints are points of contact between 2 bones – classified according to movement:SYNOVIAL FLUID – lubricating substance in joints
20JointsBALL AND SOCKET JOINT – bone with ball-shaped head fits into concave socket of 2nd bone. Shoulders and hips.HINGE JOINTS – move in one direction or plane. Knees, elbows, outer joints of fingers.
21JointsPIVOT JOINT – those with an extension rotate on a 2nd, arch shaped bone. Radius and ulna, atlas and axis.GLIDING JOINTS – flat surfaces glide across each other. Vertebrae of spine.SUTURE – immovable joint
22Types of MotionMotion: Increase or decrease the angle between 2 bones.FLEXIONBending motion that decreases the angle of the joint bringing the 2 bones closer together.
23EXTENSIONMovement that increases the angle between the 2 bones.
24ABDUCTIONMovement of the limb along the frontal plane. Raising an arm laterally or spreading the fingersADDUCTIONMovement of the limb toward the body.CIRCUMDUCTIONMovement of a limb in a circle or cone shape.
25ROTATIONTurning of the bone along its own long axis. Only movement allowed between first 2 cervical vertebra
26PRONATIONMovement of the radius around the ulna. palm faces downSUPINATIONMovement of the radius around the ulna. palm faces up
27Disorders of the Bones and Joints FRACTURE – a break Treated by:CLOSED REDUCTION – cast or splint appliedOPEN REDUCTION – surgical intervention with devices such as wires, metal plates or screws to hold the bones in alignment (internal fixation)
28Treatment of Fractures TRACTION – pulling force used to hold the bones in place – used for fractures of long bones
29GREENSTICK – in children, bone bent and splintered but never completely separate