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© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 6 Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 6 Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 6 Skeletal System

2 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Functions Support Protect Movement and anchorage Mineral storage hemopoiesis

3 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Structure and Formation of Bone Osteocytes –Mature bone cell Organic material (flexibility) –Collagen –Jellylike material Inorganic material (hardness and durability)

4 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Long Bones Shaft or diaphysis Each end is the epiphysis –Covered by articular cartilage In center is the medullary canal –Yellow bone marrow –Endosteum (lining of the marrow canal)

5 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Long Bones Red marrow –Ends of long bones –Manufacture red blood cells and some white blood cells Periosteum –Covering on outside of the bone

6 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Growth Grow in length Ossify from center outward Osteoblasts Osteoclasts

7 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Growth Growth stops when all the epiphyseal cartilage is ossified Females grow until about 18 years of age Males grow until about years of age

8 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bone Types Long bones Flat bones Irregular bones Short bones

9 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Skeletal System Axial skeleton –Skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone Appendicular skeleton –Upper and lower extremities

10 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Axial Skeleton 22 bones of the skull 14 facial bones Spinal column (vertebra) Ribs and sternum

11 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Skull

12 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Skull

13 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Appendicular Skeleton Upper Extremities Shoulder girdle Arm Hand

14 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Appendicular Skeleton Lower Extremities Pelvic girdle Upper leg Lower leg Ankle Foot

15 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Joints Called articulations –Points of contact between two bones Diarthroses (moveable) joints Amphiarthroses (partially movable) joints Synarthroses (immovable) joints

16 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Joints Articular cartilage Articular capsule –Synovial membrane –Synovial fluid –Synovial cavity Bursa sacs

17 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diarthroses Joints Movable joints Ball-and-socket joints Hinge joints Pivot joints Gliding joints

18 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Animation – Types of Joints Click Here to play Types of Joints animation

19 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Amphiarathroses Joints Partially movable joints Cartilage between their articular surfaces Examples: –Ribs to the spine –Symphysis pubis

20 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Synarthroses Joints Immovable joints Connects by tough, fibrous connective tissue Example: –Adult cranium Cranial joints called sutures

21 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Types of Motion Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Circumduction

22 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Types of Motion Rotation Promation Supination

23 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Aging Bone mass and density decline External surfaces of bones thicken Intervertebral cartilage disks shrink Center of balance is altered

24 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Aging Joints less mobile Increased rigidity and decreased flexibility Fear of falling

25 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Disorders of the Bones and Joints Fracture –Greenstick –Closed/simple –Open/compound –Comminuted

26 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Animation – Types of Fractures Click Here to play Types of Fractures animation

27 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Repairing Fractures Closed reduction Open reduction Traction

28 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bone and Joint Injuries Dislocation Sprain Hammer Toe RICE

29 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diseases Arthritis –Rheumatoid arthritis –Osteoarthritis Gout Rickets

30 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diseases Slipped (herniated) disc Whiplash injury

31 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine Kyphosis (hunchback) Lordosis (swayback) Scoliosis

32 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Other Disorders Osteoporosis Osteomyelitis Osteosarcoma


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