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Chapter 6 Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Skeletal System

2 Functions Support Protect Movement and anchorage Mineral storage

3 Structure and Formation of Bone
Osteocytes Mature bone cell Organic material (flexibility) Collagen Jellylike material Inorganic material (hardness and durability)

4 Long Bones Shaft or diaphysis Each end is the epiphysis
Covered by articular cartilage In center is the medullary canal Yellow bone marrow Endosteum (lining of the marrow canal)

5 Long Bones Red marrow Periosteum Ends of long bones
Manufacture red blood cells and some white blood cells Periosteum Covering on outside of the bone

6 Growth Grow in length Ossify from center outward Osteoblasts

7 Growth Growth stops when all the epiphyseal cartilage is ossified
Females grow until about 18 years of age Males grow until about years of age

8 Bone Types Long bones Flat bones Irregular bones Short bones

9 Skeletal System Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton
Skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone Appendicular skeleton Upper and lower extremities

10 Axial Skeleton 22 bones of the skull 14 facial bones
Spinal column (vertebra) Ribs and sternum

11 The Skull

12 The Skull

13 Appendicular Skeleton Upper Extremities
Shoulder girdle Arm Hand

14 Appendicular Skeleton Lower Extremities
Pelvic girdle Upper leg Lower leg Ankle Foot

15 Joints Called articulations Diarthroses (moveable) joints
Points of contact between two bones Diarthroses (moveable) joints Amphiarthroses (partially movable) joints Synarthroses (immovable) joints

16 Joints Articular cartilage Articular capsule Bursa sacs
Synovial membrane Synovial fluid Synovial cavity Bursa sacs

17 Diarthroses Joints Movable joints Ball-and-socket joints Hinge joints
Pivot joints Gliding joints

18 Animation – Types of Joints
Click Here to play Types of Joints animation

19 Amphiarathroses Joints
Partially movable joints Cartilage between their articular surfaces Examples: Ribs to the spine Symphysis pubis

20 Synarthroses Joints Immovable joints
Connects by tough, fibrous connective tissue Example: Adult cranium Cranial joints called sutures

21 Types of Motion Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Circumduction

22 Types of Motion Rotation Promation Supination

23 Aging Bone mass and density decline External surfaces of bones thicken
Intervertebral cartilage disks shrink Center of balance is altered

24 Aging Joints less mobile Increased rigidity and decreased flexibility
Fear of falling

25 Disorders of the Bones and Joints
Fracture Greenstick Closed/simple Open/compound Comminuted

26 Animation – Types of Fractures
Click Here to play Types of Fractures animation

27 Repairing Fractures Closed reduction Open reduction Traction

28 Bone and Joint Injuries
Dislocation Sprain Hammer Toe RICE

29 Diseases Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis Gout Rickets

30 Diseases Slipped (herniated) disc Whiplash injury

31 Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine
Kyphosis (hunchback) Lordosis (swayback) Scoliosis

32 Other Disorders Osteoporosis Osteomyelitis Osteosarcoma

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