Presentation on theme: "Bones Review. What are the functions of bones? Support – form the framework that supports the body and cradles soft organs Protection – provide a protective."— Presentation transcript:
What are the functions of bones?
Support – form the framework that supports the body and cradles soft organs Protection – provide a protective case for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs Movement – provide levers for muscles Mineral storage – reservoir for minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus Blood cell formation – hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of bones
What is the purpose of bone markings?
Sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons Joint surfaces Conduits for blood vessels and nerves
What are the axial and appendicular skeleton?
Axial consists of the skull, vertebral column and the girdles attached to (pectoral and pelvic) them
What do the cranium bones provide?
protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscles
What do the facial bones provide?
– Supply the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth – Provide openings for the passage of air and food – Anchor the facial muscles of expression
What is the purpose of the hyoid bone?
Attachment of the tongue
Name two parts of the vertebral curvature that is convex.
Thoracic and pelvic
Name two parts of the vertebral curvature that is concave.
Cervical and lumbar
Which part of the vertebrae has five fused bones?
The over curvature of the thoracic vertebrae is called ______.
Kyphosis or hunchback
The over curvature of the lumbar vertebrae is called _________. Lordosis or swayback
The pads between vertebrae that take most of the impact of the body.
Make up the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes
The first vertebrae is called the _________.
The atlas pivots with the ______.
The sacrum used to be _______ individual vertebrae.
The last two pair of ribs that aren’t attached are called ______.
What three bones forms the pectoral girdle?
Humerus, clavicle and scapula
Which bone is considered one of the weakest of the body?
The head of the femur articulates with the __________.
The anterior articulation of the coxal bones forms the ____.
Occur between the bones of the skull
Examples include the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna
Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses
The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket
Examples Include: – Epiphyseal plates of children – Joint between the costal cartilage of the first rib and the sternum
Examples include intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis
Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body
flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid
Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints
Examples are the knuckles
Give an example of a saddle joint.
Give examples of ball and socket joints.
The hip and shoulder
Give examples of gliding joints
The carpals and tarsals
Give examples of the pivot joint
The atlas and axis The hip
What holds muscle to bone?
What holds bone to bone?
Tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones
Expanded ends of long bones
double-layered protective membrane of bone
weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen
central channel containing blood vessels and nerves
channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal
small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
Give examples of long bones
Humerus, femur, radius, ulna, tibia, fibula
Give examples of flat bones
Give examples of irregular bones
Give examples of short bones
What part of the long bone contains the spongy bone?
What part of the long bone has the compact bone?
What are the differences between osteoclasts and osteoblasts?
Osteoclasts-destroy bone cells Osteoblasts-make bone cells