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Arthrography Spring 2009 Draft. Arthrography Arthrography Used to obtain diagnostic information regarding the: Joint space Joint space Surrounding soft.

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Presentation on theme: "Arthrography Spring 2009 Draft. Arthrography Arthrography Used to obtain diagnostic information regarding the: Joint space Joint space Surrounding soft."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arthrography Spring 2009 Draft

2 Arthrography Arthrography Used to obtain diagnostic information regarding the: Joint space Joint space Surrounding soft tissue Surrounding soft tissue Cartilage Cartilage Lesions of the menisci Lesions of the menisci Delineates the joint space and its surrounding structures Largely replaced by MRI

3 Joint Overview Broken down into 3 classifications Fibrous (slightly movable or immovable) Fibrous (slightly movable or immovable) Cartilaginous (slightly movable or immovable) Cartilaginous (slightly movable or immovable) Synovial (freely movable) Synovial (freely movable) For arthrography we are mainly interested in synovial joints

4 Synovial Joint Get their name from synovial fluid within joint space It is enclosed in a fibrous layer called the joint capsule These fibers are arranged irregularly These fibers are arranged irregularly Connects articulating bones just beyond joint space uniting the bones of the joint Connects articulating bones just beyond joint space uniting the bones of the joint Further contains synovial membrane, hyaline cartilage, intra-articular joint structures and ligaments Further contains synovial membrane, hyaline cartilage, intra-articular joint structures and ligaments

5 Synovial Fluid Synovial fluid is clear viscous fluid that serves as a lubricant Synovial fluid is clear viscous fluid that serves as a lubricant Fluid works with structures such as menisci, disks and fat pads to reduce friction Fluid works with structures such as menisci, disks and fat pads to reduce friction Resembles the white of an egg in consistency Resembles the white of an egg in consistency Nourishes hyaline cartilage (lines articular surfaces) Nourishes hyaline cartilage (lines articular surfaces) Is produced in the synovial membrane Is produced in the synovial membrane

6 Anatomy of a Synovial Joint Synovial membrane Hyaline articular cartilage Intra-articular JT structures Menisci, fat pads, and intra-articular disks Menisci, fat pads, and intra-articular disksLigaments

7 Most Common Areas of Examination Arthrography can be done on any encapsuled JT encapsuled JT Knee is most common type of arthrogram performed Other joint spaces include: Other joint spaces include:WristShoulderTMJHip

8 Pneumoathrograms Air or gaseous medium is used Air or gaseous medium is used 100-150 ml 100-150 ml Produces painful distention of joint Produces painful distention of joint Possible air embolism Possible air embolism Accuracy is considerably less than that when 2 contrast methods are used Accuracy is considerably less than that when 2 contrast methods are used

9 Positive or Opaque Arthrography Water soluble iodinated contrast Water soluble iodinated contrast Ionic or non-ionic 30-100ml can be used Contrast is readily absorbed, tolerated and excreted Contrast is readily absorbed, tolerated and excreted Produces greater diagnostic accuracy Produces greater diagnostic accuracy Concentration should be no more than 30% Concentration should be no more than 30%

10 Double contrast Arthrography Both gaseous and water soluble contrast employed Both gaseous and water soluble contrast employed By using both contrasts less of each can be used. By using both contrasts less of each can be used. Reducing patient discomfort Decreasing chance of air embolism Highly accurate diagnostic study

11 Contrast Precautions Verify it is the correct contrast Ionic or Non-ionic iodinated contrast Ionic or Non-ionic iodinated contrast Omnipaque or Isovue (non-ionic) Correct concentration Correct concentration Check expiration date Keep contrast vial in room until procedure is complete

12 Indications and Contraindications for Arthrography Indications: Suspected injury of meniscus (tears) Suspected injury of meniscus (tears) Suspected capsular damage Suspected capsular damage Rupture of articular ligaments Rupture of articular ligaments Cartilaginous defects Cartilaginous defects Arthritic deformities (specifically TMJ) Arthritic deformities (specifically TMJ) Congenital luxation ( dislocation) of hip Congenital luxation ( dislocation) of hip Extent of damage from trauma Extent of damage from traumaContraindications: Hypersensitivity to iodine Hypersensitivity to iodine

13 Clinical Symptoms PainSwelling Limited range of motion Recurrent instability (such as ankle)

14 Risks It is an invasive procedure therefore there are certain risks to the patient Reaction to contrast media Reaction to contrast media Vasovagal reaction Vasovagal reaction Nausea, perspiration and pallor Allergy to anesthetic agent Allergy to anesthetic agent Inflammatory synovitis Inflammatory synovitis

15 Patient PREP Get thorough pt history Reason for exam Reason for exam Allergies Allergies Ease patients anxieties Answer questions Answer questions Explain procedure Explain procedure PT comfort Allow them to use restroom Get pt into gown Blankets Obtain informed consent Sometimes hospitals require doctor to do this

16 Procedural PREP Obtain Arthrogram tray Additional supplies needed Skin PREP Shave area if needed Shave area if needed Betadine to clean area of interest in circular motion from inside to outside (often times DR prefers to do this) Betadine to clean area of interest in circular motion from inside to outside (often times DR prefers to do this)

17 Arthrogram Tray Syringes 5cc, 20 cc and 30cc luer lock 5cc, 20 cc and 30cc luer lockNeedles 25g, 20g, 18g 25g, 20g, 18g Connector tube Sterile towels Sterile drape Gauze pads (4x4) Prep sponges Adhesive tape Anesthetic Sometimes DR draws this up and some do not have this on tray Sometimes DR draws this up and some do not have this on tray

18 Aseptic Technique Do not contaminate arthrogram tray Tray is sterile Tray is sterile Do not contaminate area of interest after scrubbed

19 Additional Equipment & Supplies Shields Towels and blankets Contrast Sterile gloves Antiseptic solution Gauze Ace bandages (if needed) Fluoroscopy & radiographic capabilities Gown Extra syringes and needles Bandaids Forceps (if part of protocol) Gloves Specimen tubes (if needed)

20 Needles Smaller gauge has a larger number Larger gauge has a smaller number Length and gauge of needle is usually part of protocol DR’s preference DR’s preference Part being examined Part being examined

21 Radiation Safety Have shields for PT’s, DR and yourself Question LMP and the possibility of being pregnant Use cardinal rules Time Time Distance Distance Shielding ShieldingALARA Use pulse if possible Use pulse if possible Save the last image on screen when possible Save the last image on screen when possible

22 General Guidelines Also refer to DEPT protocol Many hospitals have different protocols for different DR’s Make sure you have everything ready This makes the procedure go smoothly This makes the procedure go smoothly

23 Aspiration Dr’s may aspirate fluids before injecting contrast media If there is a joint effusion especially If there is a joint effusion especially Fluid is sent to lab in specimen vials

24 Clinical Indications for Knee Arthrograms Pain, swelling and limited ROM Trauma or athletic injuries Suspected damage to menisci and capsule Rupture of articular ligaments Cartilaginous defects Arthritis

25 Knee Arthrogram: Vertical method Apply all principles from slides 15-21 Scout films: often AP, Lateral and oblique Scout films: often AP, Lateral and oblique Check with DEPT protocol Check with DEPT protocol Anesthetic injected Contrast is injected (single contrast study)

26 Knee Arthrogram: Vertical Method Place PT prone Place PT in frame or stress device to open JT space Place PT in frame or stress device to open JT space Sometimes support is placed under distal femur and small sandbag on ankle to widen JT space Sometimes support is placed under distal femur and small sandbag on ankle to widen JT space Part is manipulated to disperse contrast and often multiple spot films are taken under fluoroscopy

27 Knee Arthrogram: Vertical Method Overheads are done AP, lateral, 20 degree right and left oblique AP, lateral, 20 degree right and left oblique Sometimes Interconyloid fossa projections are required Sometimes Interconyloid fossa projections are required Single contrast study for a torn meniscus may fail to demonstrate the tear Usually single contrast studies are used to demonstrate loose particles of the JT Post procedure PT may feel tightness PT may feel tightness This should go away in 1-2 days This should go away in 1-2 days Can be treated with analgesics Can be treated with analgesics

28 Vertical Knee Radiographs Medial Meniscus Tear

29 Meniscus Tears Symptoms may include: "Popping" sound at the time of the injury PainTightness Swelling within the knee, often called "water on the knee" Locking up, catching, or giving way of the knee Tenderness in the joint

30 Knee Arthrogram: Horizontal Method Usually a double contrast study With this type smaller amounts of contrast can be used With this type smaller amounts of contrast can be used Decreases discomfort to PT Decreases discomfort to PT Provides are more accurate study Provides are more accurate study Demonstrates menisci the best Demonstrates menisci the best Positive contrast coats menisci Positive contrast coats menisci Air rises Air rises

31 Knee Arthrogram: Horizontal Method Apply all principles from slides 15-21 Scout films: often AP, Lateral and oblique Scout films: often AP, Lateral and oblique Check with DEPT protocol Check with DEPT protocol Anesthetic injected Contrast is injected (double contrast study) PT placed semiprone

32 Knee Arthrogram: Horizontal Method Knee is manually stressed while spot films are taken (medial & lateral meniscus) Draw a line on medial or lateral side of knee and then direct CR to the meniscus Rotate knee toward the supine position Turn 30 degrees for each of the projections Turn 30 degrees for each of the projections

33 Horizontal Knee Radiographs Spot Films Medial Meniscus AP LAT

34 For Cruciate Ligaments Double Contrast study PT’ s sits with knee flexed 90 degrees over the side of the table Firm pillow placed under knee so that forward pressure can be applied PT holds IR with grid Closely collimate Tightly overexposed lateral projection is made

35 CT Knee Arthrography PT gets a regular arthrogram in radiology Then is taken to CT for imaging Can be single or double contrast (water soluble iodine) Usually double Usually double

36 MRI Knee Arthrography MRI Knee Arthrography Gadolinium contrast is used It is a clear substance that when injected into a vein accumulates in abnormal tissue It is a clear substance that when injected into a vein accumulates in abnormal tissue Side effects can be: Mild headache, nausea, local pain, low blood pressure, allergic reaction, urticaria and SOB. Mild headache, nausea, local pain, low blood pressure, allergic reaction, urticaria and SOB. Contraindications include metal in body, claustrophobia, & PT size

37 Shoulder Arthrogram Indications: Partial or complete tears of rotator cuff Partial or complete tears of rotator cuff Tears of glenoid labrum Tears of glenoid labrum Persistent pain or weakness Persistent pain or weakness Frozen shoulder Frozen shoulder Single or double contrast can be used Single 10-12 ml Single 10-12 ml Double 3-4 positive contrast and 10-12 of air Double 3-4 positive contrast and 10-12 of air

38 Shoulder Arthrogram The usual objection site is approx ½ inch inferior & lateral to the coracoid process Usually spinal needle is used because the joint capsule is usually deep Scout films: AP (internal & external), 30 degree oblique, axillary, tangential See Chapter 5 for PT and part positioning See Chapter 5 for PT and part positioning AP scout

39 Normal Shoulder Arthrograms Single Contrast Double Contrast

40 Shoulder Single and Double contrast Single contrast Double contrast

41 Rotator Cuff Tear

42 Shoulder Arthrogram After double contrast shoulder arthrogram CT may be used in some patients In 5mm intervals through shoulder joint In 5mm intervals through shoulder joint CT scans have shown to be more sensitive and reliable in diagnosis Small chip on anterior surface on glenoid cavity

43 MRI Arthrogram of Shoulder

44 Hip Arthrogram Performed most often on children for congenital dislocation pre and post treatment Performed on adults to detect loose prosthetics or confirm presence of an infection Cement & barium are added to hold prostheses and to be able to check it radiographically Cement & barium are added to hold prostheses and to be able to check it radiographically BA and cement have approx same Z# making evaluation of JT by arthrography BA and cement have approx same Z# making evaluation of JT by arthrography Digital subtraction is used to overcome this problem Digital subtraction is used to overcome this problem

45 Hip Arthrogram & Digital Subtraction

46 Hip Arthrogram Common puncture site ¾ “ distal to the inguinal crease ¾ “ distal to the inguinal crease ¾” lateral to the palpated femoral pulse ¾” lateral to the palpated femoral pulse Spinal needle is used due to how deep the hip joint is into the body.

47 Children Hip Arthrography

48

49 Wrist Arthrogram Indications: trauma, persistent pain, limited ROM. Contrast is injected through the dorsal wrist at the articulation of the radius, scaphoid and lunate 1.5-4ml water soluble iodinated contrast 1.5-4ml water soluble iodinated contrast After injection the wrist is carefully moved to spread contrast Under fluoro or tape recording the wrist is rotated for exact area of leakage AP, LAT and both obliques often taken (check DEPT protocols

50 Wrist Arthrogram

51 Rheumatoid Arthritis

52 TMJ Arthrogram CT and MRI have largely replaced TMJ arthrography because they are noninvasive Useful in diagnosing Abnormalities of the articular disk Abnormalities of the articular disk Indications: pain, clicking sound, lock jaw when chewing sticky candy Starburst Starburst Taffy Taffy

53 TMJ Arthrograms MRI Tomography


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