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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 9 Articulations PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 9 Articulations PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 9 Articulations PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College - North Harris Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Classification of Joints  Structural Classifications  Bony  Fibrous  Cartilaginous  Synovial

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Components of Synovial Joints  Synovial fluid  Contains slippery proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts  Functions of synovial fluid: –lubrication –nutrient distribution –shock absorption

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Components of Synovial Joints  Accessory structures  Cartilages: –cushion the joint: »Fibrous cartilage pad called a meniscus (articular disc)  Fat pads: –superficial to the joint capsule –protect articular cartilages  Ligaments: –support, strengthen joints –sprain: ligaments with torn collagen fibers

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Components of Synovial Joints  Accessory structures  Tendons: –attach to muscles around joint –help support joint  Bursae: –pockets of synovial fluid –cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints [INSERT FIG. 9.1a] Figure 9–1a The Structure of a Synovial Joint.

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints Figure 9–1b The Structure of a Synovial Joint.

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Injuries  Dislocation (luxation)  Articulating surfaces forced out of position  Damages articular cartilage, ligaments, joint capsule  Subluxation  A partial dislocation

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Angular Motion  Flexion  Angular motion  Anterior–posterior plane  Reduces angle between elements  Extension  Angular motion  Anterior–posterior plane  Increases angle between elements

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Angular Motion  Hyperextension  Angular motion  Extension past anatomical position

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–3a Angular Movements.

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Angular Motion  Abduction  Angular motion  Frontal plane  Moves away from longitudinal axis  Adduction  Angular motion  Frontal plane  Moves toward longitudinal axis

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–3 Angular Movements.

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–3 Angular Movements.

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Angular Motion  Circumduction  Circular motion without rotation  Angular motion

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–3 Angular Movements.

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Types of Movement at Synovial Joints  Rotation  Direction of rotation from anatomical position  Relative to longitudinal axis of body  Left or right rotation  Medial rotation (inward rotation): –rotates toward axis  Lateral rotation (outward rotation): –rotates away from axis

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–4a Rotational Movements.

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Types of Movements at Synovial Joints  Rotation  Pronation: –rotates forearm, radius over ulna  Supination: –forearm in anatomical position

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–4b Rotational Movements.

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements  Types of Movements at Synovial Joints  Special movements  Inversion: –twists sole of foot medially  Eversion: –twists sole of foot laterally  Dorsiflexion: –flexion at ankle (lifting toes)  Plantar flexion: –extension at ankle (pointing toes)

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–5 Special Movements.

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–6 Movements at Synovial Joints.

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Movements Figure 9–6 Movements at Synovial Joints.

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Intervertebral Articulations Figure 9–8a Damage to the Intervertebral Discs.

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Intervertebral Articulations Figure 9–8b Damage to the Intervertebral Discs.

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Shoulder Joint  Also called the glenohumeral joint  Allows more motion than any other joint  Is the least stable  Supported by skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments  Ball-and-socket diarthrosis  Between head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Elbow Joint  A stable hinge joint  With articulations involving humerus, radius, and ulna

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Elbow Joint Figure 9–10a The Elbow Joint.

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Hip Joint Figure 9–11a The Hip Joint.

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Hip Joint Figure 9–11b The Hip Joint.

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Knee Joint  Menisci of the Knee  Medial and lateral menisci  Fibrous cartilage pads  At femur–tibia articulations  Cushion and stabilize joint  Give lateral support  Locking knees  Standing with legs straight: –“locks” knees by jamming lateral meniscus between tibia and femur

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Knee Joint  Seven Ligaments of the Knee Joint  Patellar ligament (anterior)  Two popliteal ligaments (posterior)  Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (inside joint capsule)  Tibial collateral ligament (medial)  Fibular collateral ligament (lateral)

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Knee Joint Figure 9–12a The Knee Joint.

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Knee Joint Figure 9–12b The Knee Joint.

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Aging  Rheumatism  A pain and stiffness of skeletal and muscular systems  Arthritis  All forms of rheumatism that damage articular cartilages of synovial joints  Osteoarthritis  Caused by wear and tear of joint surfaces, or genetic factors affecting collagen formation  Generally in people over age 60

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Aging  Rheumatoid Arthritis  An inflammatory condition  Caused by infection, allergy, or autoimmune disease  Involves the immune system  Gouty Arthritis  Occurs when crystals (uric acid or calcium salts)  Form within synovial fluid  Due to metabolic disorders

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Integration with Other Systems  Bone Recycling  Living bones maintain equilibrium between  Bone building (osteoblasts)  And breakdown (osteoclasts)  Factors Affecting Bone Strength  Age  Physical stress  Hormone levels  Calcium and phosphorus uptake and excretion  Genetic and environmental factors

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Integration with Other Systems  Bones Support Body Systems  The skeletal system  Supports and protects other systems  Stores fat, calcium, and phosphorus  Manufactures cells for immune system  Disorders in other body systems can cause  Bone tumors  Osteoporosis  Arthritis  Rickets (vitamin D deficiency)


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