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Joints. Articulations Joint Joint A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth A point of contact between.

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Presentation on theme: "Joints. Articulations Joint Joint A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth A point of contact between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints

2 Articulations Joint Joint A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth

3 Structural Classification Presence of synovial cavity? Presence of synovial cavity? Type of connective tissue? Type of connective tissue?

4 Types of Joints based on Structure Fibrous Fibrous Cartilaginous Cartilaginous Synovial Synovial

5 Fibrous Fibrous connective tissue Fibrous connective tissue Lack a synovial cavity Lack a synovial cavity

6 Cartilaginous Cartilage Cartilage Lack a synovial cavity Lack a synovial cavity

7 Synovial Dense irregular connective tissue Dense irregular connective tissue Acessory ligaments Acessory ligaments Synovial Cavity present Synovial Cavity present

8 Functional Classification Degree of movement they permit Degree of movement they permit

9 Type of Joints Based on Function Synarthrosis Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis Diarthrosis

10 Synarthrosis Immovable joint Immovable joint

11 Amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joint Slightly movable joint

12 Diarthrosis Freely movable joints Freely movable joints All are synovial joints All are synovial joints

13 Three types of Fibrous Joints Sutures Sutures Syndesmoses Syndesmoses Gomphoses Gomphoses

14 Suture A fibrous joint composed of dense fibrous connective tissue that unite skull bones only. A fibrous joint composed of dense fibrous connective tissue that unite skull bones only.

15 Suture Synarthrosis (immovable) Synarthrosis (immovable)

16 Suture Example: coronal suture Example: coronal suture

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18 Syndesmoses A fibrous joint A fibrous joint

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20 Syndesmoses More distance between bones than sutures More distance between bones than sutures

21 Syndesmoses Fibrous connective tissue arranged as a ligament (bundle) or interosseous membrane (sheet) Fibrous connective tissue arranged as a ligament (bundle) or interosseous membrane (sheet)

22 Syndesmoses Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable) Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)

23 Syndesmoses Example: distal tibiofibular joint Example: distal tibiofibular joint

24 Gomphosis A fibrous joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket A fibrous joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket

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26 Gomphosis Articulation between roots of teeth and sockets of the maxillae and mandible. Articulation between roots of teeth and sockets of the maxillae and mandible.

27 Gomphosis Dense fibrous connective tissue is the periodontal ligament Dense fibrous connective tissue is the periodontal ligament

28 Gomphosis Synarthrosis (immovable joint) Synarthrosis (immovable joint)

29 Types of Cartilaginous Joints Synchondroses Synchondroses Symphyses Symphyses

30 Synchondroses Hyaline cartilage Hyaline cartilage

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32 Synchondroses Synarthrosis (immovable joint) Synarthrosis (immovable joint)

33 Synchondroses Example: epiphyseal plate and first rib and manubrium of sternum Example: epiphyseal plate and first rib and manubrium of sternum

34 Symphyses Fibrocartilage connects the bones Fibrocartilage connects the bones

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36 Symphyses Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable) Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)

37 Symphyses Example: pubic symphysis Example: pubic symphysis

38 Synovial Joints All diarthrosis All diarthrosis

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40 Synovial Joints Contain Synovial Cavity (presence of space between articulating bones) Contain Synovial Cavity (presence of space between articulating bones)

41 Synovial Joints Ends of bones covered by articular cartilage Ends of bones covered by articular cartilage

42 Articular Capsule of Synovial Joints Encloses the synovial cavity and unites the articulating bones Encloses the synovial cavity and unites the articulating bones

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44 Articular Capsule of Synovial Joints Fibrous capsule – outer layer composed of dense connective tissue Fibrous capsule – outer layer composed of dense connective tissue

45 Articular Capsule of Synovial Joints Synovial membrane – inner layer composed of areolar connective tissue Synovial membrane – inner layer composed of areolar connective tissue

46 Synovial Fluid of the Synovial Joint Fluid in the joint cavity secreted by fibroblasts of the synovial membrane Fluid in the joint cavity secreted by fibroblasts of the synovial membrane

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48 Synovial Fluid of the Synovial Joint 1. Reduces friction

49 Synovial Fluid of the Synovial Joint 2. Supplies nutrients and removes wastes from chondrocytes within articular cartilage

50 Accessory Ligaments of the Synovial Joint Extracapsular ligaments – lie outside the articular capsule (Fibular and Tibular Collateral Ligaments) Extracapsular ligaments – lie outside the articular capsule (Fibular and Tibular Collateral Ligaments)

51 Accessory Ligaments of the Synovial Joint Intracapsular ligaments – occur within the articular capsule (Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament) Intracapsular ligaments – occur within the articular capsule (Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament)

52 Articular Discs of Synovial Joints Fibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones Fibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones

53 Articular Discs of Synovial Joints Allow two bones of different shapes to fit more tightly Allow two bones of different shapes to fit more tightly

54 Articular Discs of Synovial Joints Directs flow of synovial fluid to the areas of greatest friction Directs flow of synovial fluid to the areas of greatest friction

55 Types of Synovial Joints Planar Planar Hinge Hinge Pivot Pivot Condyloid Condyloid Saddle Saddle Ball and Socket Ball and Socket

56 Planar Articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved Articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved

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58 Planar Permits side to side and back and forth gliding movement Permits side to side and back and forth gliding movement

59 Planar Example: intercarpal, intertarsal, sternoclavicle, acromioclavicular, sternocostal, vertebrocostal Example: intercarpal, intertarsal, sternoclavicle, acromioclavicular, sternocostal, vertebrocostal

60 Hinge Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone

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62 Hinge Monoaxial Monoaxial

63 Hinge Examples: knee, elbow, ankle, and interphalangeal Examples: knee, elbow, ankle, and interphalangeal

64 Pivot Rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed by another bone and ligament Rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed by another bone and ligament

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66 Pivot Monoaxial Monoaxial

67 Pivot Example: radioulnar joint Example: radioulnar joint

68 Condyloid Convex oval-shaped projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone Convex oval-shaped projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone

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70 Condyloid Biaxial Biaxial

71 Condyloid Example: wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints Example: wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints

72 Saddle Articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped, and the other bone fits into the saddle Articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped, and the other bone fits into the saddle

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74 Saddle Biaxial Biaxial

75 Saddle Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

76 Ball and Socket Consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fits into a cup-like depression of another bone Consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fits into a cup-like depression of another bone

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78 Ball and Socket Multiaxial Multiaxial

79 Ball and Socket Example: shoulder and hip joints Example: shoulder and hip joints

80 Torn Cartilage The tearing of articular discs or menisci in the knee. The tearing of articular discs or menisci in the knee. Occurs among athletes Occurs among athletes

81 Sprains This occurs when a joint is twisted and stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones. This occurs when a joint is twisted and stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.

82 Sprains Ankle joint and lower back are commonly sprained Ankle joint and lower back are commonly sprained

83 Dislocation The displacement of a bone from joint, with resultant tearing of ligaments, tendons, and articular capsules The displacement of a bone from joint, with resultant tearing of ligaments, tendons, and articular capsules

84 Dislocation The shoulder joint is the most common joint dislocated due to shallowness of the socket. The shoulder joint is the most common joint dislocated due to shallowness of the socket.

85 Dislocation Hip joint not common due to acetabular rim is smaller than the head of the femur Hip joint not common due to acetabular rim is smaller than the head of the femur

86 Shoulder Joint Glenohumeral joint Glenohumeral joint

87 Shoulder Joint Ball and socket joint Ball and socket joint

88 Shoulder Joint Head of the humerus and glenoid cavity of the scapula Head of the humerus and glenoid cavity of the scapula

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90 Shoulder Joint / Anatomical Features Glenoid labrum – A narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the edge of the glenoid cavity. Glenoid labrum – A narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the edge of the glenoid cavity.

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92 Shoulder Joint / Anatomical Features Glenoid labrum deepens and enlarges the glenoid cavity Glenoid labrum deepens and enlarges the glenoid cavity

93 Shoulder Joint / Anatomical Features Bursae – fluid filled saclike structures that reduce friction in synovial joints Bursae – fluid filled saclike structures that reduce friction in synovial joints

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95 Shoulder Joint / Movements Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction

96 Shoulder Joint / Strength Attains most support from the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) which join the scapula to the humerus Attains most support from the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) which join the scapula to the humerus

97 Shoulder Joint / Strength Rotator cuff muscles hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity Rotator cuff muscles hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity

98 Elbow Joint Hinge joint Hinge joint

99 Elbow Joint Involves the trochlea of the humerus, the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the head of the radius Involves the trochlea of the humerus, the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the head of the radius

100 Elbow Joint / Movements Flexion and extension Flexion and extension

101 Hip Joint Ball and socket Ball and socket

102 Hip Joint Head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone Head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone

103 Hip Joint / Anatomical Features Acetabular labrum – Fibrocartilage rim attached to the margin of the acetabulum. Acetabular labrum – Fibrocartilage rim attached to the margin of the acetabulum.

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105 Hip Joint / Anatomical Features Acetabular labrum enhances the depth of the acetabulum Acetabular labrum enhances the depth of the acetabulum

106 Hip Joint / Movements Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation of the thigh Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation of the thigh

107 Knee Joint One synovial cavity One synovial cavity

108 Knee Joint 3 joints 3 joints

109 Knee Joint 1. Tibiofemoral joint – hinge joint/ between the lateral condyle of the femur, lateral meniscus, and lateral condyle of the tibia

110 Knee Joint 2. Tibiofemoral joint – hinge joint/ between the medial condyle of the femur, medial meniscus, and medial condylye of the tibia

111 Knee Joint 3. Patellofemoral joint – planar joint/ between the patella and the patellar surface of the femur

112 Knee Joint / Anatomical Features Medial meniscus and Lateral meniscus Medial meniscus and Lateral meniscus

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114 Knee Joint / Anatomical Features Contains bursae Contains bursae

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116 Knee Joint Flexion, extension, slight medial rotation, lateral rotation of leg in flexed position Flexion, extension, slight medial rotation, lateral rotation of leg in flexed position


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