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Unit 1: Absolute Monarchs in Europe Global History &Geography 10R.

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1 Unit 1: Absolute Monarchs in Europe Global History &Geography 10R

2 Do-Now:  Happy Tuesday!!  Take a primary source handout from the projector stand.  Read the primary source on “Divine Rule Theory” Answer the questions that follow.  Using a textbook, complete the map using page 411 of the Blue World History textbook.

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4 Bell Ringers:  What do you think of when you hear the word “ABSOLUTE”  What are some synonyms for this word?

5 Quick Introduction…  What is an ABSOLUTE MONARCH? A king or queen who has total, unlimited power, and seeks to control all aspects of society  What gives the king their power? Divine Right – belief that God gave the king his “right” to be king (God’s Representative)  Why did monarchs grow increasingly strong during this period? FeudalismRenaissance Growth of Cities Growth of Nationalism Need for Central Power Evolution of Absolutism Decline of the Church Rise of Middle Class

6 Absolutism Dominates Europe  Why did monarchs gain power? 1. Decline of feudalism 2. Rise of cities 3. Merchants supported monarchs 4. Crises Religious and territorial conflicts Monarchs tried to regulate this by gaining more power

7 Economic System: Mercantilism Wealth measure by the amount of gold and silver in the treasury Favorable balance of trade Export more than you import Tariffs (taxes) on foreign goods to protect domestic industries

8 9/12/12 – Do-Now  In your notebooks, answer the following question(s). (Answer should be 4-5 sentences in length.)  What are the characteristics of a great leader? (How much power should a leader have?; Should a great power be feared or loved?)

9 I. Spain’s Rise to Power  In the 1500s Spain gained land, this meant that Spain gained “power and influence.”  Spain had an ABSOLUTE RULER, Charles V (grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella).  What he controlled: Spain Spain’s colonies in the New World Parts of Italy, Netherlands, and Austria Much of Germany  Charles V was also Holy Roman Emperor.  In 1556, Charles V split his land, and retired to a monastery

10 Phillip II of Spain ( )  His father was Charles V (from the other slide)  Spain became very rich from their colonies in the New World, this made Phillip very wealthy and powerful.  Ruled by divine right  Philip was a defender of Catholicism, (he hated the Muslims and Protestants) so he sent his large naval fleet to England to punish all non-Catholics.

11 Golden Age of Art in Spain  “Siglo de Oro” (golden century)  El Greco produces religious pictures and portraits of Spanish nobles.  Velazquez paints Spanish royalty  Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote  Lope de Vega famous writer

12 Defeat of the Spanish Armada  Who: English vs. Spanish  When: 1588  Where : English Channel  Details: 130 Spanish Ships attacked the English navy English Navy outmaneuvered Spanish, and used long range guns on them  Results: Spain was weakened English Navy became the strongest navy on the Planet.

13 Problems within the Spanish Empire  The massive wealth that Spain acquired, led to long- term financial problems. Inflation – value of money is worth less, because so many people have lots of it. Tax Problems for the Lower Class, led to the near elimination of Middle Class. King had to borrow money from other countries, and 3 times he had to declare bankruptcy.

14 II. Birth of the Netherlands The Dutch Revolt  Phillip had to raise an army to keep his subjects under control.  Many Dutch were Calvinist (Spain was Catholic).  The Dutch had a prosperous Middle Class  Phillip raised taxes in the Netherlands and tried to end Protestantism.

15 Dutch Revolt (cont’d)  1566 angry protestant mobs swept through Catholic Churches.  1568 Phillip had 1500 protestants killed.  1579 they claimed their independence and became the United Provinces of the Netherlands.

16 Independent Dutch Prosper  United Provinces of the Netherlands practiced religious toleration.  They were a Republic (each province had an elected governor)  Stable gov’t led to economic growth (large fleet allowed for lots of trading!)

17 Dutch Art  During 1600s, the Netherlands became what Florence had been in the 1400s (remember the Renaissance?) The best banks and artists Rembrandt van Rijn was the best.  Portraits of wealthy merchants  Group portraits  Sharp contrast of light and dark, showed individuality of each person

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19 9/13/12: Do-Now Using your notes, your HW, and your knowledge of social studies, create a chart in your notebook and evaluate Philip II of Spain. Look specifically at the political, social, and economic effects of his rule on Spain. Does he represent a great ruler? Why/Why Not?(Use your definition from yesterday as a rubric.)

20 Philip II: The Greatest Catholic King? PoliticalSocialEconomic Established a bureaucracy, unfortunately it was inefficient. Catholic Church was feared and many distrusted it. Creates Spanish Armada to invade England and fails. Oppressed Protestants, Muslims (Moriscos), and Spanish Jews. (INQUISITION) He was a Patron of the Arts; brought about the Siglo de Oro Promoted further exploration of the New World and the riches that could be made there. Conquers land and taxes non-Catholics and lower and middle classes. Would continue to borrow money for his ventures  Bankruptcy twice Promotes the mercantilist economic system

21 Absolutism in France The Reign of Louis XIV The King is Not a Private Person. He belongs to the Public. The Will of the People is included in his Will. --Jean Bossuet--

22 III. Setting the Stage for Louis XIV A. Henry IV  There were BIG problems in France with religious connotations.  The Catholics and the Huguenots (French Protestants) were constantly fighting.  There was a time of peace when Henry of Navarre (a Huguenot prince) came to power He converted to Catholicism in order to help the country Signed the Edict of Nantes – provided religious toleration for the Huguenots in France.  He was assassinated by a fanatic.

23 Setting the Stage for Louis XIV B. Louis XIII WEAK king Richelieu was his main “advisor”  He pretty much ran the kingdom, not Louis  He hated the Huguenots  Strengthened his own power by weakening the nobles influence (made them take down their fortified castles)  French army expands during Louis XIII’s reign.  New Thinking & Writing in France Skepticism – NOTHING CAN BE CERTAIN Descartes – took these ideas and applied them to science

24 9/19/12 Do-Now: Complete M/C Questions and then answer the following questions  Why do you think historians consider Louis XIV to be the model example of an absolute monarch?  What did he do that makes him the “most absolute”?

25 C. Louis XIV The Most Powerful Ruler of France  “L’etat, c’est moi” = “I am the state” – meaning that he was France (“Sun King”)  Began his rule when he was 5 years old  Because he was so young when he took over, he had an advisor – Mazarin.  Mazarin’s “rule” caused the nobles to revolt. Louis hated this and made up his mind that he would become so powerful that the nobles would NEVER rise against him. Louis excluded them from councils and taxed them

26 The Actions of Louis XIV  Expanded the economy Jean Baptist Colbert – Minister of Finance used mercantilism to build France’s bank accounts Focused on making money in the New World (fur trade)  Revoked the Edict of Nantes Persecuted the Huguenots, so they left, and took jobs and money with them.  Pampered himself at Versailles Palace Lived in TOTAL luxury, had 500 servants, cooks, etc. who looked after his every desire.  Patron of the Arts Ballet and the Opera  Expanded the Bureaucracy Appointed Intendents (officials) to collect taxes, recruit soldiers, and carry out his rule in the provinces.

27 Louis XIV Extends France’s Borders  Under Louis’ leadership, France became the most powerful nation in Europe. Largest Population French Army: Best trained, best weapons, most soldiers  With this large army, Louis began to expand the French borders. Early in his campaigns he had success Eventually his luck ran out Hurt the people, b/c the high cost war was paid with taxes

28 D. One Last War for the French  The French people wanted peace.  What they got was another war The War of Spanish Succession France and Spain were on the verge of unification Other countries of Europe were scared that this would be too much power for the Bourbon Kings. Result: Spain and France were beaten, and the thrones were not permitted to be unified.

29 French Expansion

30 Louis XIV: Legacy & Death Positives that Louis Brought  Strengthened France in Art & Literature  Strengthened French Military and influence in Europe  Strengthened the French Colonies in the New World Negatives that Louis Brought  Constant Warfare  Massive debts (palace and costs of war)  High Taxes for the people, particularly the middle class  Set the stage for the French Revolution  Louis died in his bed in The French people celebrated when they heard the news.

31 Louis’ Palace: The Palace at Versailles  The Palace at Versailles was 14 miles outside of Paris.  5,000 acres of forests, gardens, and lawns  1,400 Fountains, so many that they could not even run them all at the same time.  The cost to build the palace was approximately $2.5 billion.  It took 36,000 people to build the Palace at Versailles. Why do you think that Louis built this palace? People who wanted to speak to the king could not knock on his door. Instead, using the left pinkie finger, they had to gently scratch on the door, until they were granted permission to enter. As a result, many courtiers grew that fingernail longer than the others

32 Palace at Versailles

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34 Central European Monarchs Clash

35 Do-Now  Put your HW in the HW bin in the back of the room.  Take a handout from the projector stand.

36 IV. The Thirty Years War  When: 1618 – 1648  Where: Bohemia (Czech Republic)  Who: Protestants (with Lutheran help) and Catholics  Details: Conflict over religion, territory, and for power among European ruling families  Results: Hurt Germany most (lost 4 million people). Germany decentralized. Treaty: Peace of Westphalia – Sovereign nation-state & Government allegiance This was the last religious war in Europe Europe became a group of independent countries, rather than a Catholic Empire

37 V. Formation of European Countries Western Europe  Serfs gained independence and moved to cities to form the middle class  Strong Empires  Strong Leaders Central Europe  Serfs were restricted from leaving their farming lifestyles, stuck in the lower class  Weak Empires  Weak Leaders  Central European Countries developed slowly. Western European countries developed quickly.

38 The Seven Years War  When:  Where: Europe, India, North America  Who: England vs. France (and their allies)  Results: England gained the most They took all of France’s holding in the New World England gained trading domination in India

39 Absolute Rulers of Russia

40 Russia on the Rise 1200s – 1700s: Russia isolated from western European developments (Crusades, Renaissance, Reformation) Developed based on Eastern Orthodox Church and the Byzantine Empire Powerful monarchy – crushed opponents Nobility, church, towns never rose against power

41 Russia’s Absolute Ruler: Ivan IV  Ivan IV a.k.a “Ivan the Terrible”  Came to the throne when he was only 3 years old.  At the age of 16 he crowned himself czar (Caesar) and took control  Took many steps against the boyars (nobles) to reduce their threat to the throne. “czar?”

42 Two Stages of Ivan’s Life  “Good Stage” –  Married Anastasia  Expanded Russia’s lands  Cleaned-up the Russian legal system WIFE (ANASTASIA) DIED / He thought she was poisoned.  “Bad Stage” –  Ivan put together a “secret police” who went around hunting those suspected of being traitors (killed 1000s)  Killed his own son (oldest)

43 Russia’s Struggles  After Ivan killed his oldest son there was only his weak, youngest son to rule.  He was too weak to lead effectively.  He died without an heir.  Then there was a question of who would now become czar…enter Czar Peter the Great  This began the rule of the Romanov Dynasty in Russia (lasts 300 years)

44 Czar Peter I  Known as Peter the Great  6’8” tall  Took over in 1696  Strengthened the power of the czar (that is added to his ABSOLUTE POWER)  Reduced power of the nobility and gained control of the Russian Orthodox Church.  When Peter took over Russia was very backwards, in that they still based their society on Vassals, serfs, etc., Peter was determined to change this.

45 Peter’s Reforms  In 1697, Peter took a grand tour of Western Europe.  Peter wanted to learn about their customs and manufacturing techniques.  In order to “westernize” Russia, Peter had to strengthen his ABSOLUTE POWER. Here’s what he did: Borrowed ideas from France. Central bureaucracy with local governments. Controlled the Russian Church; Created Holy Synod (council of bishops) Reduced the power of the Upper Class, and created a Middle Class Enlarged the Russian Army (raised taxes to pay them) Period of Westernization and Modernization

46 Peter’s Westernization of Russia  The Westernization Process Introduced Potatoes as a part of their diet Started a newspaper Allowed women to attend social gatherings Had the Nobles start wearing Western Fashions Education Focus: Navigation, Arts, and Sciences St. Petersburg: “Window on the West”, Russia’s warm water port (named after Peter’s Patron Saint) Results of Peter’s Actions: Russia became modernized, and better off as a result of his efforts.

47  Goal= To make Russia a European power.  Created the largest army in Europe.  Expanded Russian territory south, east, and northwest and gained ports on the Baltic Sea.  Peter failed to acquire a warm-water port. He fought the Ottoman Turks to gain a warm-water port on the Black Sea. Peter’s Strong Foreign Policy

48 The Expansion of Russia

49 Peter’s Economic Policies Hired western experts to teach and help build factories, roads, ports, ships. Government had total control over the economy No taxes for nobles. Tax burden on the poorest classes. Agriculture and craft production under strict government control. Gave incentives to increase production.

50 9/21/12 – Do-Now  Reflect on the following quote by Peter the Great.  "I have conquered an empire but I have not been able to conquer myself.“  What does he mean?  Take out the primary sources (Decrees of Peter the Great) and with a partner start to answer the questions that follow.  HW: Castle Learning Review Questions

51 Catherine the Great 1762 seized the throne from her weak husband and ruled as empress until A German princess, but she adopted Russian ways and earned respect of her people Believed all people born equal

52 Catherine the Great Wanted to free serfs, but a peasant rebellion changed her mind Released nobles from governmental service Allowed nobles to treat peasants how they wanted More peasants forced into serfdom than ever before and conditions worsened. Common people had fewer rights than any other place in Europe Catherine brutally squashed any uprisings

53 Catherine’s “Great” Foreign Policy Reason why she has her nickname Significantly expanded borders and achieved goal of warm water port Defeated Ottoman Turks: wins warm water port on the Black Sea Acquired territory from Poland/Partitioned Poland with Austria and Prussia Expanded West and South

54 Austria – Maria Theresa ruled  Absolute monarch of Austria Absolute monarch of Austria Absolute monarch of Austria  Fought Frederick II of Prussia for control of Hungary and Silesia  Reorganized the government  Enlightened Despot  Eased tax burden on her people  Gave more rights to her subjects  Gave birth to 16 children while in power

55 9/24/12 – Do-Now Answer the following questions in your notebook.  Think Back: Why did absolute monarchs come to power?  Think Ahead: What will be the impact of absolute monarchs on their citizens? Other nation’s citizens? The world at large?  Think Big: Who is going to challenge absolute monarchs? And why?

56 Parliament Triumphs in England  1215 King John forced to sign the Magna Carta. Limits his power  From 1485 to 1603 the Tudor dynasty worked with Parliament.  1603 Queen Elizabeth dies leaving no heirs to the throne.  Cousin James Stuart King of Scotland became King of England  The result: almost a century of turmoil in England pitting the Stuarts against the Parliament

57 Monarchs Defy Parliament  First, you need to understand that a MONARCHY is a form of ABSOLUTISM.  The Monarchs (Kings and Queens) felt that they were above the law (i.e. – Parliament) Parliament – English version of Congress  The Tudor monarchs (Henry VIII & Elizabeth I) generally worked well with Parliament.  The Stuart monarchs, with their absolutist tendencies, clashed with Parliament.

58 James I vs. Parliament  James I believed in divine right.  “I will not be content that my power be disputed upon”  James I clashed with Parliament over financial issues and foreign policy.  James I needed money for his wars and extravagant court life.  James I eventually dissolved the Parliament and imposed his own taxes.  James I also clashed with the Puritans. The Puritans were seeking to “purify” the Church of England by eliminating Catholic practices.

59 Charles I vs. Parliament  Charles fired Parliament  Then he needed them back to get him some money – He “re-hired” them.  The only way that Parliament would give him money is if he signed the Petition of Right. No false imprisonment No taxes w/o Parliament’s consent No housing of soldiers in homes No martial (absolute) law in peace time  Charles signed it – then he IGNORED it.  Parliament then withheld money – He fired them again…  His policies sparked the English Civil War.

60 English Civil War (Puritan Revolution)  Why? – Because the people and members of Parliament were angered by Charles dissolving the Parliament.  When? – 1642 – 1649 Loyalists Supported Charles Called “Cavaliers” Also called “Royalists” Puritans Supported Parliament Called Roundheads Leader was Oliver Cromwell VS

61 Results of the English Civil War  Oliver Cromwell’s Roundheads defeated the Cavaliers and imprisoned Charles  They put him on trial, sentenced him to death – chopped his head off.

62 Changes in Power  Parliament abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the official Church of England.  England became a Commonwealth.  Oliver Cromwell took over following the civil war as Lord Protector of England Formed a military state Very strict  Exiled Catholics to Ireland.  Passed Puritan laws – theaters closed, Sundays set aside for worship, no lewd dancing, taverns, or gambling.  When Crowell died, Restoration began under Charles II

63 England – Charles II The Restoration  Charles II - Popular ruler Charles II Charles II  Monarchy restored – Hence: Restoration Restoration  Bowed to the wishes of Parliament  Restored the Church of England  Stabilized government

64 Glorious Revolution 1685 Charles II died with NO heir His brother James II took over (but he was Catholic!)  He soon offended Parliament and voted some Catholic friends into high office (against the law)  Parliament protested, so he fired them  His wife then had a son and the people were scared that a long line of Catholics would rule.  Ran up massive debt.

65 Glorious Revolution (cont’d) HOWEVER, James had an older Protestant daughter (Mary) who married William of Orange. Parliament invited William to overthrow James II. He brought an army, James II was scared and fled the country Thus, the Glorious Revolution began and ended with no fighting William and Mary begin their reign and developed a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY : There is a monarch in place, however they are limited in their power

66 English Bill of Rights  Limited Monarchy  Stated that the King must work regularly with Parliament. Monarchy could not make or suspend laws.  Guaranteed supremacy of Parliament over monarchy.  Stated that the King must give the House of Commons financial support.  Trial by jury reinstated. Abolished excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment.  Affirmed habeas corpus, meaning that no person could be held in jail without first being charged with a crime. Due process of law.

67 Strengths of Absolutism  Creation of a Strong Central Government  Nationalism Increases  Wealth and Growth of Middle Class is supported  Military Spending increases = Stronger Armies  Quicker Decision Making  Usually has support of the Church

68 Weaknesses of Absolutism  State of the Union depends on One Individual  Power of the Lower Classes typically dwindles  Countless number of Wars  Higher taxes and lavish spending  National Welfare vs. Individual Welfare  Democracy?

69 Europe in 1740


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