Presentation on theme: "France. Absolutism Absolute Monarchs were kings and queens who held all power within the boundaries of their country. Divine Right of Kings: God created."— Presentation transcript:
Absolutism Absolute Monarchs were kings and queens who held all power within the boundaries of their country. Divine Right of Kings: God created the monarchy and the monarch or king acted as Gods representative on earth.
Absolutism End of feudalism and the rise of cities led to centralized power and the monarchs gaining more power. Middle class was on the rise and backed monarchs because the promised stability and supported business. Period of many wars, religious upheaval, large armies and heavy taxes all leading to unrest and peasant revolt.
To combat this, monarchs added to their power regulating religion and social gatherings. They tried to free themselves from the binds of the nobility and of legislative bodies like parliament.
France After Henry II died followed in rule by his sons and wife Catherine Medicis a period of unrest settled in 8 religious wars fought between the Catholics and the Huguenots (French Protestants). Catherine’s daughter married a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre and became Henry IV first king of the Bourbon Dynasty. Catholics opposed Henry and he converted to Catholicism.
Henry of Navarre’s Rule Edict of Nantes said Huguenots could be free to worship, est. religious tolerance. Brought back France to prosperity, but still angered many over his religious compromise, he was stabbed by an fanatic in 1610.
Put Huguenots in check, no walls around their cities, therefore they could not challenge the Catholic King. Also order the nobles to take down their walls of their castles and gave more power to middle class agents thus taking power from noble officials.
Skepticism Wars and unrest led to skepticism in writing, the idea that nothing can ever be know for certain, ex: Descartes led to the development of the scientific method.
Louis XIV After Louis XIII came Louis XIV came to power at the age of 4 but became the strongest of the Bourbon monarchs. He was “advised” by Cardinal Mazarin, many disliked the cardinal because he raised taxes and strengthened the central government. The nobles revolted and threatened the young king’s life, this led to his distrust of the nobility and make him determined to become a stronger leader.
Revolts didn’t work because 1. they distrusted each other more than Mazarin 2. Government used violent repression 3. Peasants and townspeople were tired of warring.
In the end people gave in to absolute control by the monarch for rebellion and instability was worse. Mazarin died when Louis was 22, he tool total control- took more power from nobles and gave more to his government agents the Intendants. Strengthened the economy with help from minister of finance Jean Baptist Colbert, idea was to keep wealth in the country and not rely on imports. He also was for est. of colonies in Canada.
Louis did hurt the country by cancelling the Edict of Nantes thus many skilled Huguenots left the country. Louis lived extravagantly, had 500 cooks and servants. Used the nobles as almost servants, thus showing them his power and control over them, keeping many nobles at his side at his palace and turning against nobles that did not come to court to admonish and flatter him.
Patron of the arts, loved Moliere and his plays, unlike the renaissance art was not for individual expression it was for the glorification of the king.
Expansion of his reign READ Versailles on page 600. Louis tried to expand by wars, invaded the Spanish Netherlands, was able to capture a few towns, Louis tried to fight more wars to gain territory but an alliance of European nations was created to curtail French expansion.
War of Spanish Succession War of Spanish Succession: the king of Spain died without an heir and promised the throne to Louis’ 16 year old grandson, European nations got together and fought for 14 years to keep the thrones of France and Spain from coming together under one rule. In the end Louis’s grandson became ruler but the two thrones were never allowed to unite. From the War, Britain took Spain’s port of Gibraltar on the Mediterranean, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and claims to the Hudson Bay region.
Louis died in bed in 1715 ;What was his legacy Positives of his rule: -France was “the” military power of Europe -Art and Literature Flourished -France attained colonies Negatives of his rule: -Constant warfare took it’s toll on the people and country -Debt from his lifestyle and Versailles -His abuses of power would hurt his heirs in their rule