Presentation on theme: "Nonverbal Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1Nonverbal Communication “The World Beyond Words”Language is very powerful and important, but we actually get most of our info from nonverbals
2What is Nonverbal Communication? “Messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.”Includes silent behaviors, environment, artifacts, and vocal intonationIs a powerful mode of communicationCounseling sessions in SpanishLet’s do an experiment in nonverbal cmmu to start us off… Emotions charades. Chocolate!Guess emotions portrayed.
3Characteristics/Principles of Nonverbal Communication
4All Behavior has Communicative Value Because we “cannot not communicate”May be intentional, but is often unconsciousAlthough we’re always sending messages through our nonverbals, these messages aren’t always received.We especially pay attention to nonverbals when they contradict verbal communication.Can’t turn off our communicationDon’t tend to think about what we’re transmittingDon’t tend to consciously attend to people’s nonverbalsWe really pay attention when they don’t match verbals (e.g., “What’s wrong?”, “Nothing” but they have clenched fists, are avoiding eye contact, and have tight jaw).
5Nonverbal Communication is Primarily Relational ResponsivenessCommunicates our interest in others’ communicationWomen are generally more responsive than menPeople in lower-power positions tend to be better at reading nonverbalsLiking – Positive or negative feelings about othersPowerTouchViolence and AbuseSpaceSilenceDimensions of relational level of nonverbal cmmuResponsivenessPeople w/ lower power in our society tend to be more attuned to nonverbals (e.g., women, minorities, even prisoners – might notice this w/ teacher/student or boss/employee interactions)
6(A little more about the relational nature of nonverbals) Nonverbals are especially important:For identity managementIn defining our relationships (e.g., level of intimacy)For expressing emotions we don’t want to express, can’t express, or don’t know we’re feelingSmiling and nodding, having attentive behaviors, sitting up straight and making eye contact during an interview (I am attentive, friendly, confident, etc.)Do you hug your friends or pat them on the back? Are there some you hug or don’t hug (pat on the back or don’t pat on the back)?Demonstration? A tell B about your weekend
7Nonverbal Communication is Ambiguous The same nonverbal can have multiple meaningsFor example:“I’m feeling content” smiles“I’m feeling a little stressed” smiles“I’m a bit sad” smiles“I can’t believe you just did that” smiles“How do I get out of this conversation?” smiles
8Nonverbal Communication Reflects Cultural Values Some Examples…SpaceAmericans tend to value more personal space than many other culturesMen tend to value more personal space than womenTouch (Knapp, 1972)Americans – 2 touches per hourBritish – 0 touches per hourParisians – 110 touches per hourPuerto Ricans – 180 touches per hourEye-ContactIn North-America: frankness, assertiveness, honestyIn many Asian and northern-European countries: abrasive & disrespectfulIn Brazil: more intense eye-contact is the normAnother reason nonverbals are ambiguous is that different cultures have different rules about nonverbals
10Nonverbal Communication – (Continued) Tuesday:What nonverbal cmmu is – messages expressed by nonlinguistic meansAnd some characteristics of nonverbal cmmuToday:Functions of nonverbal cmmu, different types, and some suggestions for improving our nonverbal cmmu
11The Interplay Between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication RepeatingYour nonverbals simply repeat what you’ve saidSubstitutingYour nonverbals replace languageEmblems (e.g., nodding)Complementing & AccentingYour nonverbals add depth and meaning to your languageIllustrators/Affect displaysRegulatingYour nonverbals help regulate the conversationContradictingYou say one thing, but your nonverbals say anotherE.g., I’m looking for a box that’s about 2’ x 2’ x 2’“How did you do on your test?” A little smirk, or a sighUsually unconscious – smiling, frowning, raising your eyebrows, etc.Vocal intonation, eye-contact – look when we’re listening, but not much when we’re talkingContradicting = mixed messages; “I’m not worried” while being wide-eyed and wringing your hands; “Of course I love you” while checking out other people; “What’s wrong?” “Nothing.” Or can do it to be polite, nonverbally say you’re not interested.
12DeceptionNonverbals are under less conscious control, so deception is more likely to be revealed through our nonverbals.High self-monitors and people who have lots of practice in deception are most successful at it.Women tend to be better at detecting deception.“Deceivers” tend to make more speech errors, to hesitate, to have higher vocal pitch, to fidget, blink their eyes more, and shift their posture more.Deceive others to attain our own goals, to be polite, other various reasons
14Face and EyesWhat’s might be going on in these 2 pictures? Can you tell what emotions the woman is experiencing? What tells you that?
15Face and Eyes Over 1000 distinct facial expressions Eyes can be especially expressive“Windows to the soul”Men and women have been found to be equally expressiveMen show the most emotion in the lower left quadrant of their faceWomen show emotion over their whole faceEyes can really communicate interestOne study w/ infants found that infants became terrified if they couldn’t see their moms’ eyes, but weren’t bothered if other parts of her face were covered upUF study from about a year ago (also language functions in left hemisphere vs. all over)Our faces tell * a lot* Gottman research:Found a specific facial expression for contempt (lip corners to the side, eyes rolled upward glance)A certain # of these expressions by husbands on a videotape predicted their wives’ infectious illnesses over the next 4 years
16Body Movement/Kinesics Body postureGesturesManipulators/FidgetingAn aside…What are you doing right now? What does your posture suggest? Are you fidgeting?Hunched over or upright, arms crossed or openRaising your hand in class, waving, shrugging, etc.Twirling your hair, rubbing your shoulderAn aside…Research on assaultMany criminals are good at reading nonverbalsChose victims whose body movement suggested passivitySuggestion: walk confidently, hold your head upright, meet others’ eyes w/o staring, don’t appear unsure or lost, especially if you are.
17Touch Touching is considered essential and therapeutic Touching can influence liking and complianceIs used to show intimacy or power/controlPeople with high status touch others/invade others’ spaces more than people with lower status
18Voice/ParalanguageConsists of vocal tone, speed, pitch, volume, number and length of pauses, and disfluencies (“um”s, “ah”s), etc.Paralanguage tends to be more powerful than languageAffects how other’s perceive usStereotyping (e.g., accents, vocabulary, grammarInfluenced by culture, gender, class (intentionally or unintentionally)An illustration…
19Try saying “You love me” to convey the following meanings: You really do? I hadn’t realized that.That ploy won’t work. I told you we’re through.You couldn’t possibly love me after what you did!Me? I’m the one you love?You? I didn’t think you loved anyone.
20SilenceCan communicate contentment, awkwardness, anger, respect, thoughtfulness, empathyCan also be disconfirmingA lot of good can come out of silence (e.g., with counseling)“The silent treatment” as if you’re not there – can be very hurtful
21Space/Proxemics Personal Space Intimate distance Personal distance Social distancePublic distanceBarrier behaviors and territoryYou are herePersonal space bubbleIntimate (body to 18”) In our personal space, only those who are really close to us – trustPersonal (18”-4’) implies intimacySocial (4’-12’) acquaintances, businessPublic (12’ and beyond) public speakingBarrier behaviors = backing up, putting something between us, breaking eye contactTerritory = geographical space belonging to us (your room, your bed, your apartment, etc.)We give more personal space and more territory to people with higher status/more power
22Time/Chronemics Our use of time reflects: Power/status Cultural norms ExpectationsInterpersonal priorities
23Physical Appearance “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder” We tend to notice obvious things first (gender, race), then note attractivenessPhysically attractive people generally are perceived betterImportance placed on physical appearance can be very damagingIt’s what we do with it that’s most important
24ArtifactsInclude clothing, jewelry, personal belongings, accessories, etc.Communicate economic level, educational level, trustworthiness, social position, level of sophistication, economic background, social background, educational background, level of success, moral character, masculinity/femininityImportant part of first impressionsWomen’s clothes tend to send the message of being decorative, while men’s clothes tend to be more functional
25Environment Communicates something about you We surround ourselves with things that are important/meaningful to usUse artifacts to define our territoryCan influence interactionsHow people use an environment communicates something about themMy officeHow chairs are placed, how cold/warm it is, how dark/light it isDo you sit down right next to people, avoid others, 2 at a table for 4 (sit next to or across from each other?)
26Some Guidelines for Improving Nonverbal Communication
27Monitor Your Nonverbal Communication Be Tentative When Interpreting Others’ Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbals are personal and ambiguousPersonal Qualifications:Take responsibility for your interpretationsUse “I” language to check your perceptions of nonverbalsContextual Qualifications:Be aware of how the context might be influencing others’ nonverbalsBe aware of how different cultural norms might influence others’ nonverbalsBe careful not to jump to conclusions based on your own cultural norms* Not so much faking nonverbals, but being aware of them. What are your nonverbals telling you? (If your arms are crossed, how come? If you find yourself frowning, are you feeling sad?) And are your nonverbals conveying how you really feel? (E.g., not looking at a significant other when they’re talking, but you really do care about them)