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DIRECTIONS Complete the packet “Hitler Comes to Power” Compare solutions with partner.

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Presentation on theme: "DIRECTIONS Complete the packet “Hitler Comes to Power” Compare solutions with partner."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIRECTIONS Complete the packet “Hitler Comes to Power” Compare solutions with partner

2 RISE OF MILITARIST & TOTALITARIAN STATES OBJECTIVE ASSESS THE GLOBAL IMPACT POST-WWI SOCIAL AND POLITICAL TURMOIL INCLUDING: RISE OF MILITARIST AND TOTALITARIAN STATES IN EUROPE

3 GERMANY Germany faced economic and political instability in the years after World War I. Like Italy, Germany turned to a Fascist government to solve its problems.

4 PARTNER QUESTIONS 1.What problem did Germany face that was similar to Italy and Japan? 2.How was Germany’s solution similar to Italy’s?

5 The National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi party, was formed in Munich in the years after the war. GERMANY

6 The Nazis were anti-Communist and strongly opposed to the Treaty of Versailles, which they saw as the source of Germany’s problems. The Nazis adopted the swastika—a stylized cross—as their sybmol; they dressed in brown, military-style shirts.

7 PARTNER QUESTION 3. What did the Nazis blame for all of Germany’s problems?

8 GERMANY The leader of the Nazis was an Austrian named Adolf Hitler.

9 GERMANY Hitler was a school dropout and a failed painter. He had fought for Germany during World War I and had been a decorated for bravery. Adolf Hitler as a soldier during the First World War (1914–1918)

10 GERMANY After WWI, Hitler settled in Munich, where he became the leader of the Nazi party.

11 GERMANY In 1923, the Nazis attempted an overthrow of the German government (Weimar Republic). Hitler was arrested and sent to prison. Early Nazis who participated in the attempt to seize power during the 1923 Overthrow Defendants in the overthrow Inspiration???-Event in 1922 in another European country

12 GERMANY While in prison, Hitler wrote an autobiography called Mein Kampf (My Struggle). In the book, Hitler outlined his ideas and plans for Germany.

13 PARTNER QUESTIONS 4.What did Hitler write while in prison? 5.What did Hitler write about?

14 GERMANY Hitler claimed that pure-blooded Germanic people were descended from an ancient race called Aryans and were destined to be a “master race.” Aryan Germans would rule over other groups, he said. Hitler considered Jews, Gypsies, and Slavic peoples to be inferior races.

15 PARTNER QUESTIONS 6. Who would rule over all other groups according to Hitler? 7. Who were inferior races according to Hitler?

16 GERMANY Hitler’s plan was for Germany to win back territories taken away by the Treaty of Versailles and to conquer new lands. The new lands would be needed, he claimed, for German expansion, or lebensraum (growing room/living space).

17 PARTNER QUESTIONS 8. What was Hitler’s plan? 9. What was Hitler’s reasoning for the plan?

18 GERMANY By the early 1930s, the Nazis had become the largest political party in Germany. The Nazis used their political power to get Hitler appointed chancellor (prime minister), the chief executive of the German government. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e9fEM- MfSiU

19 GERMANY Once in office, Hitler established himself as a dictator and outlawed all political parties except the Nazi party. Hitler ordered his personal guard, the SS, to eliminate all opposition to Nazi rule.

20 PARTNER QUESTION 10. How did Hitler establish himself as a dictator? [2]

21 GERMANY The SS became even stronger when it joined the Gestapo, the political police force. [Secret State Police] The Nazis used schools, newspapers, radio, the arts, and even churches to gather support for Hitler and his policies.

22 PARTNER QUESTIONS 11. Hitler used social means to control the flow of information. What vocabulary word describes this idea?

23 GERMANY In public rallies, the Nazis burned books that questioned Nazi beliefs.

24 GERMANY The Nazis openly attacked Jews, other minorities, and Communists.

25 GERMANY Germany began to prepare for war. The Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to build up its forces, but Hitler boldly announced that he would defy the treaty. When no one tried to stop him, he was encouraged to take further actions.

26 PARTNER QUESTIONS 12. What did Germany began to prepare for? 13. According to the Treaty of Versailles, was Hitler and Germany allowed to prepare for your answer to #12? 14. What does it mean “Hitler was encouraged to take further actions?” Is this allowed? Why?

27 THE REICHSTAG FIRE, FEBRUARY 27 TH, 1933 A Dutchman, van der Lubbe, confessed, at his trial, that he had started the Reichstag (parliament building) fire, but it is widely believed to have been organized by the Nazis, who used it as an excuse for suppressing political opposition and seizing dictatorial powers. The day after the fire the Reichstag fire decree was signed into law, which led to the suspension of civil liberties and the banning of many newspapers and other publications hostile to the Nazis. Hitler just became Chancellor (Prime Minister)

28 Marinus van der Lubbe

29 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE ‘This is a God-given signal! If this fire, as I believe, turns out to be the handiwork of Communists, then there is nothing that shall stop us now crushing out this murder pest with an iron fist.’ Adolf Hitler, Fascist Chancellor of Germany, made this dramatic declaration in my presence tonight in the hall of the burning Reichstag building.

30 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE The fire broke out at 9:45 tonight in the Assembly Hall of the Reichstag. It had been laid in five different corners and there is no doubt whatever that it was the handiwork of incendiaries. One of the incendiaries, a man aged thirty, was arrested by the police as he came rushing out of the building, clad only in shoes and trousers, without shirt or coat, despite the icy cold in Berlin tonight.

31 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE Five minutes after the fire had broken out I was outside the Reichstag watching the flames licking their way up the great dome into the tower.

32

33 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE A cordon [barrier] had been flung around the building and no one was allowed to pass it. After about twenty minutes of fascinated watching I suddenly saw the famous black motor car of Adolf Hitler slide past, followed by another car containing his personal bodyguard.

34 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE I rushed after them and was just in time to attach myself to the fringe of Hitler’s party as they entered the Reichstag. Never have I seen Hitler with such a grim and determined expression. His eyes, always a little protuberant, were almost bulging out of his head. Captain Goering, his right-hand man, who is the Prussian Minister of the Interior, and responsible for all police affairs, joined us in the lobby. He had a very flushed and excited face.

35 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE ‘This is undoubtedly the work of Communists, Herr Chancellor,’ Goering said. ‘A number of Communist deputies were present here in the Reichstag twenty minutes before the fire broke out. We have succeeded in arresting one of the incendiaries.’ ‘Who is he?’ Dr. Goebbels, the propaganda chief of the Nazi party, threw in.

36 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE ‘We do not know yet,’ Captain Goering answered, with an ominously determined look around his thin, sensitive mouth. ‘But we shall squeeze it out of him, have no doubt, doctor.’ We went into a room. ‘Here you can see for yourself, Herr Chancellor, the way they started the fire,’ said Captain Goering, pointing out the charred remains of some beautiful oak paneling.

37 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE ‘They hung cloths soaked in petrol over the furniture here and set it alight,’ said Captain Goering. We strode across another lobby filled with smoke. The police barred the way. ‘The candelabra [candle tree or candlestick] may crash any moment, Herr Chancellor,’ said a captain of the police, with his arms outstretched.

38 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE By a detour we next reached a part of the building which was actually in flames. Firemen were pouring water into the red mass. Hitler watched them for a few moments, a savage fury blazing from his pale blue eyes. Then we came upon Herr von Papen, urbane and debonair as ever.

39 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE Hitler stretched out his hand and uttered the threat against the Communists which I have already quoted. He then turned to Captain Goering. ‘Are all the other public buildings safe?’ he questioned. ‘I have taken every precaution,’ answered Captain Goering. ‘The police are in the highest state of alarm, and every public building has been specially garrisoned. We are waiting for anything.’

40 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE It was then that Hitler turned to me. ‘God grant,’ he said, ‘ that this is the work of the Communists. You are witnessing the beginning of a great new epoch [era/period] in German history. This fire is the beginning.’ Hitler stretched out his hand and uttered the threat against the Communists which I have already quoted. He then turned to Captain Goering. ‘Are all the other public buildings safe?’ he questioned.

41 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE And then something touched the rhetorical spring in his brain. ‘You see this flaming building,’ Hitler said, sweeping his hand dramatically around him. ‘If this Communist spirit got hold of Europe for but two months it would all be all aflame like this building.’

42 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE By 12:30 the fire had been got under control. Two Press rooms were still alight, but there was no danger of the fire spreading. Although the glass of the dome has burst and crashed to the ground the dome still stands.

43 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE So far it has not been possible to disentangle the charred debris and see whether the bodies of any incendiaries, who may have been trapped in the building, are among it. At the Prussian Ministry of the Interior a special meeting was called late tonight by Captain Goering to discuss measures to be taken as a consequence of the fire.

44 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE The entire district from the Brandenburg Gate, on the west, to the River Spree, on the east, is isolated tonight by numerous cordons [barriers] of police.

45 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE 1)After reading the account, do you believe Marinus van der Lubbe started the Reichstag Fire? A) Provide evidence from the primary source to support your claim. 2)If yes, do you believe he acted alone? A) Provide evidence from the primary source to support your claim. 3)If no, who do you believe started the Reichstag Fire? A) Provide evidence from the primary source to support your claim.

46 D. SEFTON DELMER, PRIMARY SOURCE, REICHSTAG FIRE What do you believe happened the night of the Reichstag Fire?


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