Presentation on theme: "Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Objective 1: Identify the reasons for Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. Objective 2: Explain how Hitler made Germany."— Presentation transcript:
Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Objective 1: Identify the reasons for Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. Objective 2: Explain how Hitler made Germany a totalitarian state.
1.Hitler’s secret police. 2.The Night of Broken Glass, when Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities 3.The government Hitler overthrew was the ___ Republic. 4.The ____ Valley was a coal-rich area that was occupied by the French. 5.Hitler’s manifesto (book) a.Kristallnacht b. Mein Kampf c. Nuremberg d. Ruhr e. Weimar f. Gestapo
1.Nazi laws against the Jews. 2.Hitler’s Manifesto (book) 3.The government Hitler overthrew was the ___ Republic. 4.The ____ Valley was a coal-rich area that was occupied by the French. 5.The Night of Broken Glass, when Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities a.Kristallnacht b. Mein Kampf c. Nuremberg d. Ruhr e. Weimar f. Gestapo
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) Born in Austria-Hungary, moved to Munich in 1913 (art school) Served in German Army during WWI, wounded late in the war and never understood why Germany surrendered After the war joined the German workers party and by 1921 was its leading spokesman
Hitler’s Rise to Power Weimar Government was attacked from both the Left (too much authority) and the Right (too weak) – From 1919-1924 Nazi’s had tried to create a social and political revolution out of economic hardship (based on resentment) Used the SA under Ernst Roehm (Brown Shirts) to intimidate – 1922 party membership way up (10x) so he decided it was time to try and seize power
The Beer Hall Putsch November 1923 Inspired by Mussolini’s success Hitler and Eric Ludendorf attempted to overthrow the Bavarian government (Munich) – Hitler was tried for treason and sentenced to 5 years in jail (served less than 1) – The trial was great PR for his messagegreat PR – While in jail wrote Mein Kampf Blamed WW1 loss on Jews, Marxists, corrupt politicians, and business leaders Idea of Lebensraum “living space”
Good Times, Bad Times… The economic recovery of the Dawes Plan led to a down time for the Nazi Party, but… World wide depression – 6 million unemployed in Germany by 1932 (43% of workforce) – “Hitler Time”: Nazi promises of national recovery, exciting change and personal advancement were now very enticing
Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Objective 1: To identify how Hitler solidified power. Objective 2: To identify and explain how Hitler made Germany a totalitarian state.
Rise of Nazi Party to National Power (Reichstag elections-parliamentary) – 1926 0% no seats in parliament – 1928 2.6% 12 out of 489 seats – 1930 19.6% 107 out of 547 seats – 1932 33.5% 196 out of 585 seats What event made this possible?
Nazi Party Growth By 1932 the Nazi party is the strongest in the Reichstag but do not yet have a majority – Hitler was appointed chancellor by Hindenburg in January of 1933 by industrialists who thought they could control him and were fearful of communism
Hitler Seizes Total Control Feb 1933: Reichstag building was mysteriously burned down – Hitler issues an emergency decree suspending civil liberties March 1933: New election returns only 43.9% Nazi’s to the Reichstag – Hitler arrested Communists which gave him the majority, he wanted to control the Reichstag – He then issued the Enabling Act which allowed him to rule by decree – By late June he has outlawed all other parties and controls all aspects of German society Propaganda minister Joseph Goebels
The Night of the Long Knives June 30-July 2 1934: Hitler purges the SA and their leader Ernst Rohm – They had become too powerful (1 mil active and 2 mil reserves) and posed a threat to the regular army – 1,000 people murdered without trials (Carried out by Heinrich Himmler and the SS (Schutzstaffel) August 2,1934 Hindenburg dies and Hitler combines the positions of Chancellor and President
The SA “Brown Shirts” The SA Leadership (Including Rohm) German Army – supports Hitler following the Night of the Long Knives
The Third Reich Third Reich utilized ideas of German nationalism Totalitarian state, with Gestapo as secret police Hitler Youth – indoctrination of children Creation of a state church Nazi Rally
The Police State and Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitic laws – 1933: Jews excluded from civil service and Jewish shops are boycotted – 1935: The Nuremberg Laws took away citizenship (legal exclusion, i.e. can’t marry non-Jews, attend German schools, hold government jobs or practice law) – 1938: Kristallnacht The beginning of state sanctioned violence against the Jews. Synagogues and shops burned
HitlerStalinMussolini Communist Fascist Totalitarian Use Propaganda? Came to power legally?