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The Cold War at Home 1947-1955. Essential Questions Ch 18 Sec 3  What did the US Government do to investigate the loyalty of US citizens? What areas.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War at Home 1947-1955. Essential Questions Ch 18 Sec 3  What did the US Government do to investigate the loyalty of US citizens? What areas."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War at Home 1947-1955

2 Essential Questions Ch 18 Sec 3  What did the US Government do to investigate the loyalty of US citizens? What areas of society were targeted?  What happened during the Spy Cases and how did they reflect the paranoia of the Red Scare?  What was McCarthyism and why was it controversial? What led to McCarthy’s downfall?  What other anti- Communist measures were enacted during the early 1950’s?

3 Fears of Communist Influence  The Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, the fall of Red China led many Americans to believe that Communism was spreading around the world in the late 1940’s early 1950’s  FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover estimated that there were 100,000 Americans in the Communist Party  Some feared that Communist had infiltrated the highest levels of US Government

4 The US Government Acts  The National Security Act of 1947- Established the Department of Defense, the National Security Administration (NSA) and the CIA  Accused of being soft on Communist President Truman set up the Federal Employee Loyalty Program  It was to investigate government employees  From 1947-1951 3.2 million were investigated, 212 were fired and 2,900 resigned  State and municipal programs were enacted as well (6.6 million investigated)  US Attorney General drew up a list of 91 “subversive groups”

5 The House Un-American Activities Committee  The HUAC was a Congressional Committee that was to investigate Communist activity  In 1947 it targeted the movie industry  43 “friendly” witnesses from Hollywood were subpoenaed ( Ronald Reagan, Gary Cooper and Barbara Stanwyck)  Some “unfriendly” witnesses were Orsen Wells, and Charlie Chaplin  Even Humphrey Bogart and Lucile Ball received bad publicity




9 The Hollywood Ten  Ten “Unfriendly witnesses” refused to testify, they thought the hearings were unconstitutional, they were sentenced to prison by the committee (Hollywood Ten)  Hollywood executives instituted a “blacklist”  500 actors, writers, producers and directors had their careers ruined The blacklist remained in effect until 1960


11 The McCarran Act  To be even tougher on Communist Congress passed the McCarran Act  Communist organizations must register with the US Gov.  Illegal to plan a totalitarian dictatorship in the US  Communists could be interned during national emergencies  No Communists in Defense Industries  Barred Communist Immigrants to the US  Communists could be deported

12 Spy Cases Stun the Nation  In 1948 a former Communist spy Whittaker Chambers (Time Magazine Editor) named former State Department Official Alger Hiss of Spying for the USSR

13 The Hiss Case  Chambers produced micro-film and documents allegedly passed to him from Hiss “The Pumpkin Papers” Hiss denied the charges  Congressman Nixon pursued the charges which increased his popularity  The statue of limitations had ran out on the espionage charge so Hiss was convicted of perjury and sentenced to 5 years in prison, he served 2 years still claiming his innocence

14 The Rosenbergs  In 1950 Physicist Klaus Fuchs admitted to giving the USSR atomic bomb information  Two minor activist in the American Communist party were implicated in the spy ring, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg  Ethel’s brother David Greenglass worked at Los Alamos  The Rosenbergs claimed they were being Jewish and holding radical beliefs  They were found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death  They were electrocuted on June 19 th, 1953



17 McCarthy’s Witchhunt  Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin first gained prominence by giving a speech in WV in which he claimed he had a list of 200 “Card-carrying communist “ in the State Department

18 McCarthyism  With the help of his staff assistant and lawyer Roy Cohn McCarthy accused many people of disloyality (Sec of State Dean Acheson and General George C. Marshall)  He accused people without providing evidence, his lists and sources were never revealed  He targeted not only his “egg-sucking phony liberals” but Blacks (Paul Robeson), Jews, Foreign Born and Homosexuals  McCarthy and J. Edgar Hoover attacked “perverted” or “abnormal” orientations



21 McCarthy’s Downfall  In 1954 McCarthy made accusations against the US Army  During April-June 1954 the Army –McCarthy Hearings allowed 20 million American to witness his bullying and recklessness  Army Attorney Joseph B. Welch shot back  In December 1954 McCarthy was censured for “conduct unbecoming a member of the US Senate” His support was gone  In 1957 McCarthy died from alcoholism a broken man



24 Damage and other Anti- Communist Measures  Because of McCarthy many repressive federal and state laws remained in effect  Basic freedoms such as freedom of speech and assembly were eroded  Dissent had become dangerous  The US Government investigated union leaders, librarians, teachers, reporters, entertainers, and scientists

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