Presentation on theme: "Gaby Duva, Sarah Gould, Colby Goldschmied During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens."— Presentation transcript:
Gaby Duva, Sarah Gould, Colby Goldschmied During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens
Americans fear Communism would spread around the world. Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and Communist take over China. 100,00 Americans part of Communist party Truman accused of being soft Communist March 1947, Truman set up Federal Employee Loyalty Program- investigate government employees and dismiss those who were found to be disloyal to the US government 1947 to 1951 government loyalty boards investigated 3.2 million employees, dismiss 212 as security threats, 2,900 resign because they didn’t want to be investigated House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 1947 began to investigate Communist influence in the movie industry, committee believed Communist were sneaking propaganda into films HUAC accused 43 from Hollywood film industry in February 1947 Hollywood ten Hollywood ten called to testify but refused, wouldn’t cooperate because they believed that the hearings were unconstitutional, sent to prison Blacklist- Blacklist- a list of people whom they condemned for having a Communist background
Congress decided Truman’s Loyalty Review Board wasn’t enough rid Hollywood of Communist 1950 Congress passed McCarran International Security Act, unlawful to play any action that might lead to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in the US Truman vetoed the bill, but Congress enacted the law over his veto
Two spy cases add to fear spreading across the nation. One involved former State Department official Alger Hiss Alger Hiss accused of spying for the Soviet Union by a former Communist spy named Whittaker Chambers Jury convicted him of perjury-lying about passing documents- Hiss was sent to jail Richard Nixon gained fame from pursuing charges against Hiss Within 4 years Nixon elected president Hiss claimed that he was innocent, 1990s Soviet cables prove his guilt 1950 Klaus Puch admitted to giving the Soviet Union information about America’s atomic bomb, this probably helped the Soviet’s to develop the bomb years earlier Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Ethel and Julius Rosenberg minor activists in the American Communist Party were implicated in the Fuchs case They denied charges when asked if they were Communists, they were found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death in the electric chair in Juno 1953, they became the 1 st US civilians executed for espionage
McCarthyism McCarthy made several unsupported accusations, these attacks on suspected Communists became known as McCarthyism Republicans did little to stop McCarthy’s attacks because they believed they would win the 1952 presidential election Joseph McCarthy Joseph McCarthy most famous anti-Communist activist, Republican Senator McCarthy made accusations against the US Army in 1954 which resulted in a nationally televised Senate investigation His bullying of witnesses cost him public support, Senate condemned him for improper conduct He died 3 years later from alcoholism McCarthy Interview
1953, 39 states had passed laws making it illegal to advocate the violent overthrow of the government, cities and towns across the nation passed similar laws (later it was ruled that the constitutional right of free speech was violated) Many people still have fears of Communism People would take loyalty oaths and the government investigated union leaders, librarians, newspaper reporters, and scientists.
1.Which is not a cause of McCarthyism? A) Korean War ends in a stalemate. B) Soviets develop the atomic bomb more quickly than expected quickly than expected C) Activism by labor goes into decline. D) Republicans gain politically by accusing Truman. Truman.
2) Which is not an effect of McCarthyism? A) Many people are afraid to speak out on public issues. B) Millions of Americans are forced to take loyalty oaths and undergo loyalty investigations. C) Anti-communism continues to drive U.S. foreign policy. D) Soviets successfully establish Communist regimes in Eastern Europe after WWII regimes in Eastern Europe after WWII.
3) What is a blacklist? A) A list of people whom they considered for having a Communist background. B) A list of people whom they considered for having a Capitalist background. C) A list of black people. D) A list that was burned by black people D) A list that was burned by black people.
4) Why was Hollywood a target of anti- Communist investigations by Congress? A) The congress did not trust the people in Hollywood. B) Congress believed that the communists were sneaking propaganda into films. C) The congress was jealous of Hollywood. D) Actors, writers, and producers who were communists were making too much money For their films.
5) Who became the first U.S. civilians executed for espionage? A) Roosevelt and Hitler B) McCarthy and Hiss C) Julius and Ethel Rosenberg D) Truman and Ethel Rosenberg