2Learning Objectives: Section 3 - The Cold War at Home 1. Describe government efforts to investigate the loyalty of U.S. citizens. 2. Explain the spy cases of Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. 3 . Describe the efforts of Senator Joseph McCarthy to investigate alleged Communist influence in the United States.
3CHAPTER 18: SECTION 3: THE COLD WAR AT HOME At the height of WWII, about 80,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist PartySome feared that the first loyalty of these American Communists was to the Soviet UnionOverall, Americans feared communist ideology, a world revolution and Soviet expansionAnti-Soviet cartoon
4U.S. GOVERNMENT TAKES ACTION In March of 1947, President Truman set up the Loyalty Review BoardThe board was created to investigate federal employees and dismiss those disloyal to the U.S. governmentThe U.S. Attorney General also drew up a list of 91 “subversive” organizations – membership in any of these was ground for suspicion
5MAIN IDEA QUESTIONSA – How did the Loyalty Review Board pose a threat to civil liberties?Individuals under investigation were not allowed to see the evidence against them.
6THE HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE The HUAC was a government body which first made headlines in 1947 when it began investigating communist influence in the movie industryThe committee believed that Communists were sneaking propaganda into filmsThe HUAC subpoenaed witnesses from Hollywood to discuss their involvement
7The “Blacklist Ten” (And two lawyers) Ten witnesses refused to cooperate because they believed the proceedings were unconstitutional – they were jailedSubsequently, the committee blacklisted 500 actors, directors, writers and producers whom they believed had communist connectionsThe “Blacklist Ten” (And two lawyers)
9B – Why was Hollywood a target of the anti-Communist investigations by Congress? House un-American Activities CommitteeHUAC believed that Hollywood was sneaking propaganda into films.Its members pointed to pro-soviet films made during the war.
10Guided Reading:What were they accused of?How were they affected by the accusation?Do the accusations seems to be fair? Explian.The Hollywood TenAccused of disloyalty; being Communists; exposing moviegoers to Communist propagandaThey were imprisoned and blacklisted; their careers and reputations were destroyed.Students will hold various opinions regarding the fairness of the accusations.
11SPY CASES STUN THE NATION Two spy cases added to the fear gripping the nationAlger Hiss was accused of being a spy for the SovietsA young Republican congressman named Richard Nixon gained fame by tirelessly prosecuting HissHiss was found guilty and jailed – less than four years later Nixon was VPNixon examines microfilm in Hiss case
12Guided Reading:What were they accused of?How were they affected by the accusation?Do the accusations seems to be fair? Explian.Alger HissAccused of spying for the Soviet Union; passing government documents to the Soviet Union; perjuryHe was convicted of perjury and jailed.Students will hold various opinions regarding the fain1ess of the accusations.
13The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens executed for espionage Another high profile trial was the Rosenberg spy caseThe Rosenbergs were accused of providing information to Soviets which enabled them to produce an atomic bomb in 1949Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were found guilty and executedThe Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens executed for espionage
14C – Why did the cases of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs heighten the anti-Communist mood of Americans?They added to the impression that the US was being betrayed by Communist spies.
15Guided Reading:What were they accused of?How were they affected by the accusation?Do the accusations seems to be fair? Explain.Ethel and Julius RosenbergAccused of spying for the Soviet Union; helping to pass information to the Soviets about the atomic bombThey were convicted and executed.Students will hold various opinions regarding the fairness, of the accusations.
16MCCARTHY LAUNCHES “WITCH HUNT” The most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from WisconsinMcCarthy took advantage of people’s concern about Communism by making unsupported claims that 205 state department members were Communists
17GUIDED READING What seems to have motivated it? McCarthy's desire to be reelected;the Republicans' desire to win the presidential election;growing fears of communism and suspicion of foreign influences in the United States.
18MCCARTHY’S DOWNFALL Finally, in 1954 McCarthy went too far He accused high ranking Army officers of being CommunistsIn the televised proceedings McCarthy’s bullying of witnesses alienated the national audienceMcCarthy’s attacking style and utter lack of evidence led to his downfall
19GUIDED READING Why did it succeed at first? McCarthy fed on the public's fears and gave the impression that he was purging the nation of a very dangerous, and seemingly very real, Communist menace.
20THE AMERICAN SHAMEToday, those Congressional witch hunts and episodes of “red-baiting" are universally discredited as abuse of official powerThe history of the blacklist era has come to stand for demagoguery, censorship, and political despotism; and the blacklisting, persecution, and jailing of American citizens for their political beliefs - or their perceived political beliefs - is regarded as a shameful chapter in modern American history
21GUIDED READING Why did it fall out? In televised hearings, McCarthy bullied witnesses, turning the public against him. There was no proof for his accusations.