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Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 3: The Cold War At Home.

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1 Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 3: The Cold War At Home

2 California Academic Standards: & California Academic Standards: & Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II America..7 Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology..7 Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology Students analyze U.S. foreign policy since World War II..3 Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following:.3 Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following: The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting The Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine The Berlin Blockade The Berlin Blockade The Korean War The Korean War The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis Atomic testing in the American West, the "mutual assured destruction" doctrine, and disarmament policies Atomic testing in the American West, the "mutual assured destruction" doctrine, and disarmament policies The Vietnam War The Vietnam War Latin American policy Latin American policy

3 Objectives: Objectives: Following lecture and reading of this section, students will be able to: 1. Describe government efforts to investigate the loyalty of U.S. citizens. 2. Explain the spy cases of Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. 3. Describe the efforts of Senator Joseph McCarthy to investigate alleged Communist influence in the United States.

4 Fears of Communist Influence Fears of Communist Influence Americans are worried about the U.S. security because they saw Eastern Europe and China fall to Communists and feared it could happen any where anytime. Americans are worried about the U.S. security because they saw Eastern Europe and China fall to Communists and feared it could happen any where anytime.

5 Also about 100,000 Americans claimed membership in Communist parties in the U.S. Also about 100,000 Americans claimed membership in Communist parties in the U.S. Loyalty Review Board Loyalty Review Board Truman accused of being soft on Communism. Truman accused of being soft on Communism. Purpose: to investigate gov’t workers and dismiss any that were disloyal to the U.S. Purpose: to investigate gov’t workers and dismiss any that were disloyal to the U.S.

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9 Belonging to certain groups was cause for suspicion Belonging to certain groups was cause for suspicion 3.2 million investigated; 212 dismissed as threats; 2,900 resigned to avoid or protest investigations. 3.2 million investigated; 212 dismissed as threats; 2,900 resigned to avoid or protest investigations.

10 House Un-American Activities Committee House Un-American Activities Committee Purpose: one of several agencies that investigated Communist influence both inside and outside the U.S. gov’t. Purpose: one of several agencies that investigated Communist influence both inside and outside the U.S. gov’t.

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13 Famous for investigating movie industry in 1947 believing Communist propaganda had infiltrated Hollywood. Famous for investigating movie industry in 1947 believing Communist propaganda had infiltrated Hollywood. Many in Hollywood agreed, and supported belief in accusations Many in Hollywood agreed, and supported belief in accusations

14 The Hollywood Ten refused to testify claiming the hearings and investigations were unconstitutional, and were imprisoned. The Hollywood Ten refused to testify claiming the hearings and investigations were unconstitutional, and were imprisoned. Because of investigation, a blacklist of about 500 was compiled in which names of suspected communists were placed and could no longer find work. Because of investigation, a blacklist of about 500 was compiled in which names of suspected communists were placed and could no longer find work.

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17 McCarran Act McCarran Act Purpose: Make any act that would lead to the establishment of a totalitarian gov’t unlawful. Purpose: Make any act that would lead to the establishment of a totalitarian gov’t unlawful. Spy Cases Stun the Nation Spy Cases Stun the Nation Alger Hiss Alger Hiss Convicted of perjury for lying about passing soviet gov’t documents. Convicted of perjury for lying about passing soviet gov’t documents.

18 Ethel & Julius Rosenberg Ethel & Julius Rosenberg Minor activists in the American Communist Party Minor activists in the American Communist Party Found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death, for leaking information on our atomic bomb to the USSR allowing them to develop it years earlier than they would have. Found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death, for leaking information on our atomic bomb to the USSR allowing them to develop it years earlier than they would have.

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21 1st U.S. civilians executed for espionage. 1st U.S. civilians executed for espionage. McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (Republican), charged that Communists were taking over the gov’t. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (Republican), charged that Communists were taking over the gov’t.

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23 McCarthy’s Tactics McCarthy’s Tactics Accused people in the gov’t of disloyalty without providing evidence. Accused people in the gov’t of disloyalty without providing evidence. Only made claims in the senate where he had legal immunity from slander. Only made claims in the senate where he had legal immunity from slander.

24 Republicans did little to stop him, because they thought they would win 1952 presidential election if America saw them as ridding the gov’t of Communists. Republicans did little to stop him, because they thought they would win 1952 presidential election if America saw them as ridding the gov’t of Communists.

25 McCarthy’s Downfall McCarthy’s Downfall 1954, McCarthy bullied witnesses in a televised investigation and cost him public support. 1954, McCarthy bullied witnesses in a televised investigation and cost him public support.

26 Other Anti- Communist Measures Other Anti- Communist Measures By 1953, 39 states passed laws making it illegal to advocate the violent overthrow of the gov’t. By 1953, 39 states passed laws making it illegal to advocate the violent overthrow of the gov’t.

27 People had to take loyalty oaths, people were afraid to sign petitions quoting the Declaration of Independence fearing they were Communist ideas. People had to take loyalty oaths, people were afraid to sign petitions quoting the Declaration of Independence fearing they were Communist ideas. Union leaders, librarians, reporters, and scientists were investigated. Union leaders, librarians, reporters, and scientists were investigated.

28 The Cold War at Home The Cold War at Home During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism leads to reckless charges against innocent citizens. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism leads to reckless charges against innocent citizens. Fear of Communist Influence Fear of Communist Influence American Sentiments American Sentiments ·Communist takeover of Eastern Europe, China fuel fear of its spread ·Communist takeover of Eastern Europe, China fuel fear of its spread ·100,000 in U.S. Communist Party; some fear may be loyal to U.S.S.R. ·100,000 in U.S. Communist Party; some fear may be loyal to U.S.S.R. Loyalty Review Board Loyalty Review Board ·Truman accused of being soft on Communism ·Truman accused of being soft on Communism ·Sets up Federal Employee Loyalty Program to investigate employees ·Sets up Federal Employee Loyalty Program to investigate employees ·1947–1951 loyalty boards investigate 3.2 million, dismiss 212 ·1947–1951 loyalty boards investigate 3.2 million, dismiss 212 The House Un-American Activities Committee The House Un-American Activities Committee ·House Un-American Activities Committee investigates Communist ties ·House Un-American Activities Committee investigates Communist ties ·Investigates Communist influence in movie industry ·Investigates Communist influence in movie industry ·Hollywood Ten refuse to testify, sent to prison ·Hollywood Ten refuse to testify, sent to prison ·Hollywood blacklist—people with Communist ties, cannot get work ·Hollywood blacklist—people with Communist ties, cannot get work The McCarran Act The McCarran Act ·Act—unlawful to plan action that might lead to totalitarianism ·Act—unlawful to plan action that might lead to totalitarianism ·Truman vetoes, says violates free thought; Congress overrides veto ·Truman vetoes, says violates free thought; Congress overrides veto Spy Cases Stun the Nation Spy Cases Stun the Nation Alger Hiss [Visual] Alger Hiss [Visual] ·Alger Hiss accused of spying for Soviet Union; convicted of perjury ·Alger Hiss accused of spying for Soviet Union; convicted of perjury ·Congressman Richard Nixon gains fame for pursuing charges ·Congressman Richard Nixon gains fame for pursuing charges The Rosenbergs The Rosenbergs ·1949, Soviets explode atomic bomb sooner than expected ·1949, Soviets explode atomic bomb sooner than expected ·Physicist Klaus Fuchs admits giving information about U.S. bomb ·Physicist Klaus Fuchs admits giving information about U.S. bomb ·Ethel, Julius Rosenberg, minor Communist Party activists, implicated ·Ethel, Julius Rosenberg, minor Communist Party activists, implicated ·Rosenbergs sentenced to death; Supreme Court upholds conviction ·Rosenbergs sentenced to death; Supreme Court upholds conviction McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” McCarthy’s Tactics McCarthy’s Tactics ·Senator Joseph McCarthy a strong anti- Communist activist ·Senator Joseph McCarthy a strong anti- Communist activist ·Ineffective legislator; needs issue to win reelection ·Ineffective legislator; needs issue to win reelection ·McCarthyism—attacking suspected Communists without evidence ·McCarthyism—attacking suspected Communists without evidence ·McCarthy claims Communists in State Department ·McCarthy claims Communists in State Department ·Few Republicans speak out; think he has winning strategy for 1952 ·Few Republicans speak out; think he has winning strategy for 1952 McCarthy’s Downfall [Visual] McCarthy’s Downfall [Visual] ·1954, McCarthy accuses members of U.S. Army ·1954, McCarthy accuses members of U.S. Army ·Televised hearings show him bullying witnesses ·Televised hearings show him bullying witnesses ·Loses public support; Senate condemns him for improper conduct ·Loses public support; Senate condemns him for improper conduct Other Anti-Communist Measures Other Anti-Communist Measures ·States, towns forbid speech favoring violent overthrow of government ·States, towns forbid speech favoring violent overthrow of government ·Millions forced to take loyalty oaths, are investigated ·Millions forced to take loyalty oaths, are investigated ·People become afraid to speak out on public issues ·People become afraid to speak out on public issues


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