Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 3: The Cold War At Home"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 3: The Cold War At Home
2California Academic Standards: 11.8.7 & 11.9.3 11.8 Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II America..7 Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology.11.9 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy since World War II..3 Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following:The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklistingThe Truman DoctrineThe Berlin BlockadeThe Korean WarThe Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile CrisisAtomic testing in the American West, the "mutual assured destruction" doctrine, and disarmament policiesThe Vietnam WarLatin American policy
3Objectives:Following lecture and reading of this section, students will be able to:Describe government efforts to investigate the loyalty of U.S. citizens.Explain the spy cases of Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.Describe the efforts of Senator Joseph McCarthy to investigate alleged Communist influence in the United States.
4Fears of Communist Influence Americans are worried about the U.S. security because they saw Eastern Europe and China fall to Communists and feared it could happen any where anytime.
5Also about 100,000 Americans claimed membership in Communist parties in the U.S. Loyalty Review BoardTruman accused of being soft on Communism.Purpose: to investigate gov’t workers and dismiss any that were disloyal to the U.S.
13Famous for investigating movie industry in 1947 believing Communist propaganda had infiltrated Hollywood.Many in Hollywood agreed, and supported belief in accusations
14The Hollywood Ten refused to testify claiming the hearings and investigations were unconstitutional, and were imprisoned.Because of investigation, a blacklist of about 500 was compiled in which names of suspected communists were placed and could no longer find work.
17Spy Cases Stun the Nation McCarran ActPurpose: Make any act that would lead to the establishment of a totalitarian gov’t unlawful.Spy Cases Stun the NationAlger HissConvicted of perjury for lying about passing soviet gov’t documents.
18Ethel & Julius Rosenberg Minor activists in the American Communist PartyFound guilty of espionage and sentenced to death, for leaking information on our atomic bomb to the USSR allowing them to develop it years earlier than they would have.
23McCarthy’s TacticsAccused people in the gov’t of disloyalty without providing evidence.Only made claims in the senate where he had legal immunity from slander.
24Republicans did little to stop him, because they thought they would win 1952 presidential election if America saw them as ridding the gov’t of Communists.
25McCarthy’s Downfall1954, McCarthy bullied witnesses in a televised investigation and cost him public support.
26Other Anti-Communist Measures By 1953, 39 states passed laws making it illegal to advocate the violent overthrow of the gov’t.
27People had to take loyalty oaths, people were afraid to sign petitions quoting the Declaration of Independence fearing they were Communist ideas.Union leaders, librarians, reporters, and scientists were investigated.
28The Cold War at HomeDuring the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism leads to reckless charges against innocent citizens.Fear of Communist InfluenceAmerican Sentiments·Communist takeover of Eastern Europe, China fuel fear of its spread·100,000 in U.S. Communist Party; some fear may be loyal to U.S.S.R.Loyalty Review Board·Truman accused of being soft on Communism·Sets up Federal Employee Loyalty Program to investigate employees·1947–1951 loyalty boards investigate 3.2 million, dismiss 212The House Un-American Activities Committee·House Un-American Activities Committee investigates Communist ties·Investigates Communist influence in movie industry·Hollywood Ten refuse to testify, sent to prison·Hollywood blacklist—people with Communist ties, cannot get workThe McCarran Act·Act—unlawful to plan action that might lead to totalitarianism·Truman vetoes, says violates free thought; Congress overrides vetoSpy Cases Stun the NationAlger Hiss [Visual]·Alger Hiss accused of spying for Soviet Union; convicted of perjury·Congressman Richard Nixon gains fame for pursuing chargesThe Rosenbergs·1949, Soviets explode atomic bomb sooner than expected·Physicist Klaus Fuchs admits giving information about U.S. bomb·Ethel, Julius Rosenberg, minor Communist Party activists, implicated·Rosenbergs sentenced to death; Supreme Court upholds convictionMcCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt”McCarthy’s Tactics·Senator Joseph McCarthy a strong anti-Communist activist·Ineffective legislator; needs issue to win reelection·McCarthyism—attacking suspected Communists without evidence·McCarthy claims Communists in State Department·Few Republicans speak out; think he has winning strategy for 1952McCarthy’s Downfall [Visual]·1954, McCarthy accuses members of U.S. Army·Televised hearings show him bullying witnesses·Loses public support; Senate condemns him for improper conductOther Anti-Communist Measures·States, towns forbid speech favoring violent overthrow of government·Millions forced to take loyalty oaths, are investigated·People become afraid to speak out on public issues