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Presentation on theme: "THE SECOND RED SCARE CH. 15 SECTION 3"— Presentation transcript:

The Origins and consequences of McCarthyism, domestic communism, and blacklisting

2 Containment The U.S. should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power and influence - George Kennan

3 The Growing Fear of Communism
Soviet Atomic Weapons In September 1949 Truman announced that the Soviet Union had detonated an atomic bomb. This was a shock to the nation. Truman began to strengthen the nation’s military against a possible Soviet nuclear threat. Communist China Communists in China had gained nearly full control of the country. The Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan China was in the hands of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong. Americans worried that China increased the Communist threat to the United States.


5 Communism in the United States
The House Un-American Activities Committee investigated the full range of radical groups in the United States, including Fascists and Communists. Truman created a plan to investigate all federal employees. Those found to be disloyal to the United States were barred from federal employment.

6 Hollywood & the movies

7 THE HOLLYWOOD TEN HUAC investigated communism in the film industry
10 writers and directors were questioned They refused to answer questions They were found guilty of contempt of Congress and sentenced to 1 year in jail They were blacklisted - people refused to hire them.

8 Fighting Communism at Home
The Smith Act The act made it a crime to call for the overthrow of the U.S. government. Truman charged several leaders of the Communist Party in the United States under this act. The leaders were convicted and their convictions were upheld in Dennis v. United States. The McCarran Act This act required Communist organizations to register with the government. It established a special board to investigate Communist involvement. Made it illegal to plan a totalitarian dictatorship Prevented Communists from entering the United States

9 HUAC - Richard Nixon -“Pumpkin Papers”
ALGER HISS U.S. State Department official Former communist spy Whittaker Chambers accuses him of being a spy Rolls of top-secret microfilm found in a hollowed out pumpkin on his farm Convicted of being a spy for the Soviets Testified to HUAC Charged with perjury Alger Hiss on trial HUAC - Richard Nixon -“Pumpkin Papers”

10 KLAUS FUCHS German-born nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project He gave American atomic secrets to the Soviets--including a detailed drawing of “Fat Man” Served 9 year prison sentence--moved to East Germany after

American communists convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage Executed in 1953 First civilians in American history to be executed for espionage

12 Joseph McCarthy and the Second Red Scare
Joseph McCarthy was a senator who claimed that there were 205 known Communists working for the U.S. Department of State. Truman dismissed him as a “ballyhoo artist.” McCarthy succeeded when he made a special effort to defeat Maryland Senator Millard Tydings.

13 McCarthyism A political cartoonist dubbed McCarthy’s tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges “McCarthyism”. McCarthy’s claims were rarely backed up with any evidence, but this didn’t stop him from gaining a reputation as being the nation’s top Communist fighter. McCarthyism spread beyond the Senate into other branches of government, into universities, into labor unions, and into private businesses.

14 McCarthy Hearings Unsubstantiated accusations Faked photographs
Questionable evidence The accused were unable to defend themselves

15 McCarthy’s Fall McCarthy became increasingly wild in his accusations
He attacked the U.S. Army, claiming it was protecting communists The Army-McCarthy Hearings were televised and embarrassed McCarthy See It Now and TV broadcaster Edward Murrow attacked McCarthy Edward Murrow Edward Murrow


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