Presentation on theme: "THE SECOND RED SCARE CH. 15 SECTION 3"— Presentation transcript:
1THE SECOND RED SCARE CH. 15 SECTION 3 The Origins and consequences of McCarthyism, domestic communism, and blacklisting
2Containment The U.S. should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power and influence - George Kennan
3The Growing Fear of Communism Soviet Atomic WeaponsIn September 1949 Truman announced that the Soviet Union had detonated an atomic bomb.This was a shock to the nation.Truman began to strengthen the nation’s military against a possible Soviet nuclear threat.Communist ChinaCommunists in China had gained nearly full control of the country.The Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek fled to TaiwanChina was in the hands of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong.Americans worried that China increased the Communist threat to the United States.
5Communism in the United States The House Un-American Activities Committee investigated the full range of radical groups in the United States, including Fascists and Communists.Truman created a plan to investigate all federal employees. Those found to be disloyal to the United States were barred from federal employment.
7THE HOLLYWOOD TEN HUAC investigated communism in the film industry 10 writers and directors were questionedThey refused to answer questionsThey were found guilty of contempt of Congress and sentenced to 1 year in jailThey were blacklisted - people refused to hire them.
8Fighting Communism at Home The Smith ActThe act made it a crime to call for the overthrow of the U.S. government.Truman charged several leaders of the Communist Party in the United States under this act.The leaders were convicted and their convictions were upheld in Dennis v. United States.The McCarran ActThis act required Communist organizations to register with the government.It established a special board to investigate Communist involvement.Made it illegal to plan a totalitarian dictatorshipPrevented Communists from entering the United States
9HUAC - Richard Nixon -“Pumpkin Papers” ALGER HISSU.S. State Department officialFormer communist spy Whittaker Chambers accuses him of being a spyRolls of top-secret microfilm found in a hollowed out pumpkin on his farmConvicted of being a spy for the SovietsTestified to HUACCharged with perjuryAlger Hiss on trialHUAC - Richard Nixon -“Pumpkin Papers”
10KLAUS FUCHSGerman-born nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan ProjectHe gave American atomic secrets to the Soviets--including a detailed drawing of “Fat Man”Served 9 year prison sentence--moved to East Germany after
11ETHEL & JULIUS ROSENBERG American communists convicted of conspiracy to commit espionageExecuted in 1953First civilians in American history to be executed for espionage
12Joseph McCarthy and the Second Red Scare Joseph McCarthy was a senator who claimed that there were 205 known Communists working for the U.S. Department of State.Truman dismissed him as a “ballyhoo artist.”McCarthy succeeded when he made a special effort to defeat Maryland Senator Millard Tydings.
13McCarthyismA political cartoonist dubbed McCarthy’s tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges “McCarthyism”.McCarthy’s claims were rarely backed up with any evidence, but this didn’t stop him from gaining a reputation as being the nation’s top Communist fighter.McCarthyism spread beyond the Senate into other branches of government, into universities, into labor unions, and into private businesses.
14McCarthy Hearings Unsubstantiated accusations Faked photographs Questionable evidenceThe accused were unable to defend themselves
15McCarthy’s Fall McCarthy became increasingly wild in his accusations He attacked the U.S. Army, claiming it was protecting communistsThe Army-McCarthy Hearings were televised and embarrassed McCarthySee It Now and TV broadcaster Edward Murrow attacked McCarthyEdward MurrowEdward Murrow