Presentation on theme: "The 2 nd Red Scare Fear of Communism during the 1950s."— Presentation transcript:
The 2 nd Red Scare Fear of Communism during the 1950s
What was the 2 nd Red Scare? A fear of communism in the U.S. during the late 1940s that lasted into the mid-1950s. People became paranoid about communist spies in America.
Causes of the 2 nd Red Scare 1. The Cold War—the Belief that the Soviet Union was trying to take over the world. 2. The uncovering of actual communist spies. 3. Republicans using the issue of communism as a political issue—they attack the Democrats as being “soft” on communism.
Truman’s Response to Republicans Executive Order 9835 Establishes the Federal Employees Loyalty and Security Program. Barred communists from federal employment. Set guidelines for investigating present and perspective employees.
AP—McCarran Act Internal Security Act—Required all communists to register with the govt.
HUAC House Un-American Activates Committee Congressional committee that sought to find communists in the U.S.
HUAC Attacks Hollywood HUAC members feared that many in Hollywood were communists or communist sympathizers. Held hearing in which they interrogated witnesses. If witnesses did not go along and “name names” they were “blacklisted.”
Blacklisting None of the Hollywood studios would hire a person who had not cooperated with HUAC.
The Alger Hiss Case 1948 Whittaker Chambers—a Time editor and former communist (now a staunch anti-communist)—accused Alger Hiss of having been a communist. Hiss had worked for the State Department during WWII. Chambers said Hiss passed govt. secrets to him to give to Russia. Hiss denied Chambers charges.
The Pumpkin Papers Chambers claimed to have proof--- microfilm of documents given to him by Hiss. Chambers hid the microfilm in a pumpkin. (Thus the “Pumpkin Papers”). He gave the microfilm to Republican Congressman Richard Nixon of CA. Hiss was convicted of perjury (lying under oath). Sentenced to 5-years (he served 2).
The Rosenbergs Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were accused of giving atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets. They wre members of the communist party. They denied the charges and refused to cooperate. They were executed in 1953.
McCarthyism Named after Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy (Republican). McCarthy was person most famous for making accusations that there were communists everywhere (including the government). McCarthyism = accusing people of being communist without evidence.
Wheeling Speech McCarthy gives speech in Wheeling, W.Va in which he claims to have the names of known communists working in the Sate Department. Makes him famous. Never produces the names. Goes on to make more charges.
The Tydings Committee Millard Tydings (a senator from MD.) Forms a Senate committee to look into the charges made by McCarthy. The Tydings committee finds that there is no truth to McCarthy’s charges. McCarthy claims that Tydings against him because he likes communists.
Why McCarthy becomes popular He quickly becomes the 2 nd most famous politican in the 50s (behind IKE). Many people were afraid of communism during the 2 nd Red Scare. They thought McCarthy was helping protect the country. Republicans liked that he made the Democrats look bad.
Ike and McCarthy Republicans liked McCarthy when they were not the majority party because his attacks put the Democrats on the defensive. Once the Republicans get the presidency and control congress, he becomes a headache. Ike criticizes McCarthy in private, but does not do anything publicly.
McCarthy Committee McCarthy gets his own committee to investigate communists in the U.S. Eventually, though, he starts to investigate army.
McCarthy-Army Hearings Televised. People see what a bully McCarthy is.
Murrow attacks McCarthy Edward R. Murrow was a famous reporter. Had a TV show called, See It Now. Had a whole episode in which the showed McCarthy was a liar and a bully. Greatly discredited McCarthy.
The End of McCarthy Combination of Army hearings and the See It Know episode lead to people turning against McCarthy. Censured by Senate. Dies of alcoholism a broken man.
Impact of McCarthyism Negatively impacted many people’s lives. Helped to intensify a period of paranoia over communism. Made it so leftists/ultra liberals were marginalized in American politics.