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The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages CHW3M. Disunity in Europe Conflicts and war between different groups dominates the early middle ages Conflicts.

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Presentation on theme: "The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages CHW3M. Disunity in Europe Conflicts and war between different groups dominates the early middle ages Conflicts."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages CHW3M

2 Disunity in Europe Conflicts and war between different groups dominates the early middle ages Conflicts and war between different groups dominates the early middle ages The feudal system brings some stability, but dynasties, kingdoms, and territories are ever shifting throughout the middle ages The feudal system brings some stability, but dynasties, kingdoms, and territories are ever shifting throughout the middle ages

3 England Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great gets rid the Vikings in the late 9 th century, establishes a system of law of gov’t Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great gets rid the Vikings in the late 9 th century, establishes a system of law of gov’t But Danes invade after, establishing own rule But Danes invade after, establishing own rule William the Conqueror (Norman) takes control of England in 1066 – all British monarchs since trace their ancestry back to him William the Conqueror (Norman) takes control of England in 1066 – all British monarchs since trace their ancestry back to him

4 The Mainland France, Germany, and most of Italy brought together under Holy Roman Empire by Otto I in late 10 th century France, Germany, and most of Italy brought together under Holy Roman Empire by Otto I in late 10 th century But Germany and Italy soon after disintegrate into hundreds of small states But Germany and Italy soon after disintegrate into hundreds of small states France and Britain at war from France and Britain at war from

5 The Church The only constant, and the only thing that unites Western Europe, is the Catholic Church The only constant, and the only thing that unites Western Europe, is the Catholic Church All people are expected to live according to Christian doctrine (as determined by the Catholic Church) All people are expected to live according to Christian doctrine (as determined by the Catholic Church)

6 The Church as an Institution Has own gov’t, laws, courts, system of taxation Has own gov’t, laws, courts, system of taxation Provides education*, is the main source of knowledge and records (clergy are basically the only people who could read and write in medieval Europe) Provides education*, is the main source of knowledge and records (clergy are basically the only people who could read and write in medieval Europe) Looks after poor and sick, and provides spiritual comfort during the very difficult and bleak middle ages Looks after poor and sick, and provides spiritual comfort during the very difficult and bleak middle ages *Also bans/burns vast numbers of books, forbids translation of bible, censors Gutenberg’s printing press, Galileo convicted of heresy, Aristotle outlawed, etc.

7 The Church and the Feudal System Church itself holds vast areas of land and grows rich off taxes and tithes Church itself holds vast areas of land and grows rich off taxes and tithes Uses money to acquire new lands, and thus new sources of income Uses money to acquire new lands, and thus new sources of income Elsewhere, nobles are appointed as high officials within the Church Elsewhere, nobles are appointed as high officials within the Church The Pope can release a subject from their feudal obligations to the king The Pope can release a subject from their feudal obligations to the king

8 The relationship between the Church and Kings Smart rulers ally themselves with the Church to further their ambitions Smart rulers ally themselves with the Church to further their ambitions No king can rule in Western Europe without the Pope’s approval No king can rule in Western Europe without the Pope’s approval Popes use a variety of tactics to exert their will over kings Popes use a variety of tactics to exert their will over kings

9 The relationship between the Church and Kings “Now, therefore, we declare, say, determine and pronounce that for every human creature it is necessary for salvation to be subject to the authority of the Roman pontiff” “Now, therefore, we declare, say, determine and pronounce that for every human creature it is necessary for salvation to be subject to the authority of the Roman pontiff” Papal Bull of Boniface VIII Papal Bull of Boniface VIII Basically: both spiritual and temporal power are under the pope’s jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Church. Basically: both spiritual and temporal power are under the pope’s jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Church.

10 Papal Weapons Excommunication Excommunication A person is basically kicked out of the church and condemned to hell A person is basically kicked out of the church and condemned to hell Makes a king vulnerable to challenge from other lords Makes a king vulnerable to challenge from other lords Interdict Interdict Excommunicating an entire territory Excommunicating an entire territory Ensures that the entire population will be against the king so that their souls can be saved Ensures that the entire population will be against the king so that their souls can be saved

11 The Medieval Popes Some of the most powerful men in history Some of the most powerful men in history Controlled Europe in a way no king ever would Controlled Europe in a way no king ever would As the Church’s focus shifts towards growing its wealth and power, it sacrifices many of its original spiritual ideals As the Church’s focus shifts towards growing its wealth and power, it sacrifices many of its original spiritual ideals Next to impossible to find a medieval pope not guilty of numerous crimes/sins Next to impossible to find a medieval pope not guilty of numerous crimes/sins

12 Corruption! Many Popes, such as Nicholas III ( ), ), and Clement V ( ) distributed lands amongst supporters and family members (essentially giving them land and political power) and played countries and kings against one another to achieve greater power Many Popes, such as Nicholas III ( ), Boniface VIII ( ), and Clement V ( ) distributed lands amongst supporters and family members (essentially giving them land and political power) and played countries and kings against one another to achieve greater power Papacy is literally bought (Alexander VI) and sold (Benedict IX) Papacy is literally bought (Alexander VI) and sold (Benedict IX)

13 Adultery! Sergius III (897, ), ( ) and Alexander VI ( ) all notorious for sexual escapades, both fathering numerous bastards that, if they were boys, usually wound up being cardinals, or even popes themselves Sergius III (897, ), John XII ( ) and Alexander VI ( ) all notorious for sexual escapades, both fathering numerous bastards that, if they were boys, usually wound up being cardinals, or even popes themselves

14 Murder! Sergius III had his predecessor, Christopher, and his predecessor's predecessor, Leo V, strangled in prison Sergius III had his predecessor, Christopher, and his predecessor's predecessor, Leo V, strangled in prison Other popes notorious for killing enemies (nobles, cardinals, whoever) by poison (Alexander IV, Leo X) or hired killers (Boniface VIII) Other popes notorious for killing enemies (nobles, cardinals, whoever) by poison (Alexander IV, Leo X) or hired killers (Boniface VIII)

15 Torture! Innocent IV ( ) approves the use of torture to extract confessions of heresy during the Inquisition Innocent IV ( ) approves the use of torture to extract confessions of heresy during the Inquisition Urban IV ( ) ordered the torture and murder of Cardinals that did not agree with his policies - he was recorded as complaining to the torturers that he did not hear enough screaming when the Cardinals were tortured Urban IV ( ) ordered the torture and murder of Cardinals that did not agree with his policies - he was recorded as complaining to the torturers that he did not hear enough screaming when the Cardinals were tortured

16 Genocide? Urban II ( ) Urban II ( ) Ten million slaughtered by the army of Peter the Hermit under the approval of Urban II in Belgrade, Turkey, Syria, Antiock, and Palestine Ten million slaughtered by the army of Peter the Hermit under the approval of Urban II in Belgrade, Turkey, Syria, Antiock, and Palestine Every single man, woman, child and animal in Jerusalem is slaughtered (150,000 to 200,000 people), upon specific order of Urban II Every single man, woman, child and animal in Jerusalem is slaughtered (150,000 to 200,000 people), upon specific order of Urban II Innocent III ( ) Innocent III ( ) Over a million people throughout Europe are tortured to death during the Inquisition Over a million people throughout Europe are tortured to death during the Inquisition Authorized the murder of the inhabitants of Constantinople, many of whom were Christians, during the fourth crusade (100,000 slaughtered) Authorized the murder of the inhabitants of Constantinople, many of whom were Christians, during the fourth crusade (100,000 slaughtered) Instigates holy war against Christian heretics – over a million Albigensians/Cathars killed in south of France from Instigates holy war against Christian heretics – over a million Albigensians/Cathars killed in south of France from

17 The Decline of the Church Fourth Crusade leaves a bad taste in peoples’ mouths Fourth Crusade leaves a bad taste in peoples’ mouths Black Death undermines peoples’ faith in God Black Death undermines peoples’ faith in God Church corruption questioned - in 14 th century people like John Wycliffe and Jan Hus had the bible translated from Latin so people could read it for themselves Church corruption questioned - in 14 th century people like John Wycliffe and Jan Hus had the bible translated from Latin so people could read it for themselves Great Schism in 15 th century results in 3 different Popes Great Schism in 15 th century results in 3 different Popes Leo X’s efforts to raise funds through selling indulgences (basically buying your way into heaven) and church offices results in Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation in 1517 Leo X’s efforts to raise funds through selling indulgences (basically buying your way into heaven) and church offices results in Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation in 1517

18 Work Luther’s 95 Theses Luther’s 95 Theses Page 280 Page 280 The Middle Ages are often called “The Age of Faith” – do you agree with this description? Explain your reasoning. The Middle Ages are often called “The Age of Faith” – do you agree with this description? Explain your reasoning.


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