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Early Modern Era (1450-1750): The Protestant Reformation.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Modern Era (1450-1750): The Protestant Reformation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Modern Era (1450-1750): The Protestant Reformation

2 What is the Protestant Reformation? 1517-1648 The split (splintering) of Roman Catholicism into other Christian faiths End of religious unity in Western Europe

3 4 Factors leading to Protestant Reformation 1. By end of Middle Ages, many criticize the corruption, wealth and power of Catholic Church –Indulgences, Simony, Personal Faith in God, Anti-Theocractic beliefs 2. Humanist ideas from the Renaissance conflict with religious authority of the Church

4 4 Factors leading to Protestant Reformation 3. Political leaders (kings, princes) wanted more power & money (Germany, England); Church was competition to their power 4. Scholars began to read the Bible; many disagreed with Church practices (printing press)

5 The Timeline of the Reformation Early 1500s: Popes are accused of living luxuriously. Pope Leo X sought to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica; sold church positions (simony) & (forgiveness for sins) indulgences 1517: German monk Martin Luther nailed 95 Theses on church door in Wittenberg (northern Germany) Criticized simony, indulgences, other Church practices

6 The Timeline of the Reformation 1520 - 21: Pope excommunicated Luther at the Diet of Worms (Germany) 1520s: Luther declared a heretic and outlaw  German prince hides Luther, while he translates Bible into German  Creates new religion - Lutheranism

7 Martin Luther’s Message Opposed selling indulgences b/c no one but God could forgive sins Salvation by Faith alone  only a strong belief in God can save someone, not their good works Only need a Bible to have a relationship with God  Pope and priest not important

8 Why Does the Protestant Reformation Spread? Printing Press  created by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450  Easier to write and print books  increases literacy Bible written in German, not Latin Princes and Kings want more power (Germany and England)

9 Spread of Reformation to England 1527: King Henry VIII petitioned Pope for divorce; Pope refused 1534: Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy –Made king head of the English Church (Church of England) –King closed monasteries & convents, seized Catholic lands

10 Results of Protestant Reformation Spread of new religions to England, Switzerland, Germany and the rest of Europe Greater divide between Protestants and Catholics lead to 150 years of religious warfare Catholic Counter- Reformation

11 Catholic Counter Reformation What is it?  Reaction of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation Goal: Try to fix problems within Church to get back followers -> Council of Trent “Bonfire of the Vanities” Savonarola Reforms: – Inquisition (try to get rid of non- Catholics in certain regions – Spain, France, Italy) – New Religious Orders – Jesuits – Stricter rules for Catholic officials

12 More Results of the Protestant Reformation Kings & rulers gained more political power from Germany Catholic Church lost power, prestige, and wealth Period of intolerance between Catholics and Protestants –Some create laws for religious tolerance –Edict of Nantes (France) – freedom to choose religion Greater focus on Education  focus on secular, not religious, ideas  continues Renaissance humanism Witch hunts throughout Europe

13 Homework Questions 1). Explain what the Protestant Reformation is and how it affected Europe in the Early Modern Period. 2). List the 4 reasons the Protestant Reformation occurred. Explain 2 of them in your own words. 3). What are the 95 Theses? Specifically explain one complaint Martin Luther had against the Catholic Church. 4). What happens to Martin Luther because of his 95 Theses? 5). How did the Printing Press play an important role during the Protestant Reformation? 6). Explain 2 reasons (don’t list) the Protestant Reformation spreads throughout Europe. 7). Give 1 example of how the Protestant Reformation impacts a specific European nation. 8). How does the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation? Give 2 specific examples of the Catholic Church’s response.

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