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Martin Luther & The Reformation. Church Abuses Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) – Declared that all temporal matters & even rulers were ultimately subjects.

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Presentation on theme: "Martin Luther & The Reformation. Church Abuses Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) – Declared that all temporal matters & even rulers were ultimately subjects."— Presentation transcript:

1 Martin Luther & The Reformation

2 Church Abuses Pope Boniface VIII ( ) – Declared that all temporal matters & even rulers were ultimately subjects to the spiritual power wielded by the pope Nationalism – England and France Each attempted to tax the church and limit papal authority. King Philip IV of France tried to have Boniface arrested and brought to trial.

3 The Avignon Papacy After Boniface VIII – French archbishop chosen pope and moves headquarters to Avignon Babylon Captivity –

4 Wycliffe & Hus John Wycliffe ( ) – Translated the Bible into English – Believed that monarchs and believers were only accountable to God not the pope – Questioned validity of Sacraments – Believed church was community of believers not Catholic hierarchy – Declared heretic after death 1428 John Hus ( ) – Teacher in Prague, Czech. – Began preaching in Czech language – Believed Bible was the only source of faith – Excommunicated at Council of Constance in 1415 – Burned at the stake and ashes thrown in to the Rhine

5 The Great Schism 1378 – 1417 – Avignon Pope goes to Italy to confer with colleagues 1378 Italian Pope elected by College of Cardinals – French Pope elected by French Cardinals & returns Avignon 1417 Council of Constance deposes all popes and elects Martin V

6 Indulgences & other Abuses Church began selling indulgences for the forgiveness of sins – Mostly to finance the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica – Church had more good deeds than they would ever need Absenteeism Simony - buying and selling of Church offices – Expectatives Pluralism

7 St Peter’s Basilica

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11 Pope Leo X “God has given us the papacy- let us enjoy it” – Lived a lavish lifestyle Commissioned a Dominican monk John Tetzel to sell indulgences – Pope Leo X & Archbishop Albert Mainz 50/50 split

12 John Tetzel

13 Martin Luther Born 1483 – 1546 – Father was a miner and small business man – Was obsessed with his own salvation and feared satan and eternal damnation – Thunderstorm at age 22

14 The 95 Theses Nailed to church door in Wittenberg – October 31, Major Claims – Faith alone leads to salvation – The Bible is the sole authority – The priesthood of all believers Claimed that Indulgences were a fraud and against the teachings of Jesus Printing Press spread Luther’s theses’ rapidly

15 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Imperial Diet at Worms 1521 – Excommunicated by the Pope in 1520 and deemed a heretic Declared an outlaw by the Emperor – Given refuge by Prince Frederick of Saxony

16 Luther’s Defense Your Lordships demands a simple answer. Here it is, plain and unvarnished. Unless I am convicted of error by the testimony of Scripture or (since I put no trust in the unsupported authority of Pope or of councils, since it is plain that they have often erred and often contradicted themselves) by manifest reasoning I stand convicted by the Scriptures to which I have appealed, and my conscience is taken captive by God’s word, I cannot and will not recant anything, for to act against our conscience is neither safe for us, nor open to us. On this I take my stand, I can do no other. God help me. Amen. Martin Luther

17 Europe after the Reformation


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