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Published byMicah Darr Modified over 8 years ago
Martin Luther & The Reformation
Church Abuses Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) – Declared that all temporal matters & even rulers were ultimately subjects to the spiritual power wielded by the pope Nationalism – England and France Each attempted to tax the church and limit papal authority. King Philip IV of France tried to have Boniface arrested and brought to trial.
The Avignon Papacy After Boniface VIII – French archbishop chosen pope and moves headquarters to Avignon Babylon Captivity – 1305 - 1377
Wycliffe & Hus John Wycliffe (1320-1384) – Translated the Bible into English – Believed that monarchs and believers were only accountable to God not the pope – Questioned validity of Sacraments – Believed church was community of believers not Catholic hierarchy – Declared heretic after death 1428 John Hus (1369 - 1415) – Teacher in Prague, Czech. – Began preaching in Czech language – Believed Bible was the only source of faith – Excommunicated at Council of Constance in 1415 – Burned at the stake and ashes thrown in to the Rhine
The Great Schism 1378 – 1417 – Avignon Pope goes to Italy to confer with colleagues 1378 Italian Pope elected by College of Cardinals – French Pope elected by French Cardinals & returns Avignon 1417 Council of Constance deposes all popes and elects Martin V
Indulgences & other Abuses Church began selling indulgences for the forgiveness of sins – Mostly to finance the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica – Church had more good deeds than they would ever need Absenteeism Simony - buying and selling of Church offices – Expectatives Pluralism
St Peter’s Basilica
Pope Leo X “God has given us the papacy- let us enjoy it” – Lived a lavish lifestyle Commissioned a Dominican monk John Tetzel to sell indulgences – Pope Leo X & Archbishop Albert Mainz 50/50 split
Martin Luther Born 1483 – 1546 – Father was a miner and small business man – Was obsessed with his own salvation and feared satan and eternal damnation – Thunderstorm at age 22
The 95 Theses Nailed to church door in Wittenberg – October 31, 1517 3 Major Claims – Faith alone leads to salvation – The Bible is the sole authority – The priesthood of all believers Claimed that Indulgences were a fraud and against the teachings of Jesus Printing Press spread Luther’s theses’ rapidly
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Imperial Diet at Worms 1521 – Excommunicated by the Pope in 1520 and deemed a heretic Declared an outlaw by the Emperor – Given refuge by Prince Frederick of Saxony
Luther’s Defense Your Lordships demands a simple answer. Here it is, plain and unvarnished. Unless I am convicted of error by the testimony of Scripture or (since I put no trust in the unsupported authority of Pope or of councils, since it is plain that they have often erred and often contradicted themselves) by manifest reasoning I stand convicted by the Scriptures to which I have appealed, and my conscience is taken captive by God’s word, I cannot and will not recant anything, for to act against our conscience is neither safe for us, nor open to us. On this I take my stand, I can do no other. God help me. Amen. Martin Luther
Europe after the Reformation
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