Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Work, Success, and Kids: On Marriage, Family, and Kinship."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 Work, Success, and Kids: On Marriage, Family, and Kinship
Nuclear and Extended Families The nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children. The nuclear family: – ego-centered and impermanent Descent groups are permanent (lasting beyond the life spans of individual constituents) – reckoned according to a single ancestor.
Nuclear and Extended Families (cont.) Family of orientation – the family in which one is born and grows up, Family of procreation – formed when one marries and has children. Claims made for the universality of the nuclear family, based upon the universality of marriage, do not hold up--the nuclear family is widespread, but not universal.
Nuclear and Extended Families (cont.) In societies where the nuclear family is important, this structure acts as a primary arena for sexual, reproductive, economic, and enculturative functions In many societies, the extended families are the primary unit of social organization
Industrialism and Family Organization The most prevalent residence pattern in the United States is families of procreation living neolocally. In the U.S., as in other large, industrialized societies, patterns of residence and family types may change from class to class, in response to the conditions of these different contexts (e.g., extended families as a response to poverty).
Changes in North American Kinship In 2000, 24 percent of American households were inhabited by nuclear families. – As compared to 40% in 1970 Increasing representation of women in the work force is associated with a rise in marriage age. The divorce rate rose steeply between 1970 and 1994. The media is reflecting and intensifying these changes.
Changes in North American Kinship Comparatively, Americans (especially middle class) identify a smaller range of kindred than members of nonindustrial societies.
The Family among Foragers The two basic units of social organization among foragers are the nuclear family and the band. Typically, the band exists only seasonally, breaking up into nuclear families when subsistence means require.
Marriage There is no single definition of marriage that is adequate to account for all of the diversity found in marriages cross-culturally. Terms – Genitor refers to the biological father of a child. – Pater refers to the socially recognized father of a child.
Exogamy Exogamy is the practice of seeking a spouse outside one's own group. This practice forces people to create and maintain a wide social network. This wider social network nurtures, helps, and protects one's group during times of need.
Incest Incest refers to sexual relations with a close relative. – The incest taboo is a cultural universal. – What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture. In societies with unilineal descent systems (patrilineal or matrilineal), the incest taboo is often defined based on the distinction between two kinds of first cousins: parallel cousins and cross cousins. – Sexual relations with a parallel cousin is incestuous, because they belong to the same generation and the same descent group. – Sexual relations with a cross cousin is not incestuous because they belong to the opposite group or moiety.
Explaining the Taboo: Instinctive Horror This theory argues that Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest. This theory has been refuted. – However, cultural universality does not necessarily entail a genetic basis (e.g., fire making). – If people really were genetically programmed to avoid incest, a formal incest taboo would be unnecessary. – This theory cannot explain why in some societies people can marry their cross cousins but not their parallel cousins.
Explaining the Taboo: Biological Degeneration This theory argues that the incest taboo developed in response to abnormal offspring born from incestuous unions. A decline in fertility and survival does accompany brother-sister mating across several generations.
Explaining the Taboo: Biological Degeneration However, human marriage patterns are based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration several generations in the future. – Neither instinctive horror nor biological degeneration can explain the very widespread custom of marrying cross cousins. – Also, fears about degeneration cannot explain why sexual unions between parallel cousins but not cross cousins are so often tabooed.
Explaining the Taboo: Attempt and Contempt Malinowski (and Freud) argued that the incest taboo originated to direct sexual feelings away from one ’ s family to avoid disrupting the family structure and relations (familiarity increases the chances for attempt). The opposite theory argues that people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up (familiarity breeds contempt).
Explaining the Taboo: Marry Out or Die Out A more accepted argument is that the taboo originated to ensure exogamy. – Incest taboos force people to create and maintain wide social networks by extending peaceful relations beyond one's immediate group. – With this theory, incest taboos are seen as an adaptively advantageous cultural construct. This argument focuses on the adaptive social results of exogamy, such as alliance formation, not simply on the idea of biological degeneration. Incest taboos also function to increase a group's genetic diversity.
Endogamy Endogamy and exogamy may operate in a single society, but do not apply to the same social unit. Endogamy can be seen as functioning to express and maintain social difference, particularly in stratified societies. Homogamy is the practice of marrying someone similar to you in terms of background, social status, aspirations, and interests.
Caste India ’ s caste system is an extreme example of endogamy. It is argued that, although India ’ s varna and America ’ s “ races ” are historically distinct, they share a caste-like ideology of endogamy.
Polygyny Even in cultures that approve of polygamy, monogamy still tends to be the norm, largely because most populations tend to have equal sex ratios. Polygyny is more common than polyandry because, where sex ratios are not equal, there tend to be more women than men. Multiple wives tend also to be associated with wealth and prestige (the Kanuri of Nigeria and the Betsileo are used as examples).
Polyandry Polyandry is quite rare, being practiced almost exclusively in South Asia. Among the Paharis of India, polyandry was associated with a relatively low female population, which was itself due to covert female infanticide. Polyandry is usually practiced in response to specific circumstances, and in conjunction with other marriage formats. In other cultures, polyandry resulted from the fact that men traveled a great deal, thus multiple husbands ensured the presence of a man in the home.
Edmund Leach on Marriage Edmund Leach argued that there are several different kinds of rights allocated by marriage. Marriage can establish the legal father of a woman ’ s children and the legal mother of a man ’ s. Marriage can give either or both spouses a monopoly in the sexuality of the other. Marriage can give either of both spouses rights to the labor of the other. Marriage can give either of both spouses rights over the other ’ s property. Marriage can establish a joint fund of property — a partnership — for the benefit of the children. Marriage can establish a socially significant relationship of affinity between spouses and their relatives.
Marital Rights and Same-Sex Marriage In the section Kottak argues that same-sex marriages are legitimate unions between two individuals because like other kinds of marriage, same-sex marriage can allocate all of the rights discussed by Leach. – In the U.S., since same-sex marriage is illegal, same-sex couples are denied many of these rights (e.g., rights to the labor of the other, over the other ’ s property, relationships of affinity with the other ’ s relatives). – This does not mean that same-sex marriages, like any other cultural construction, are not capable of meeting these needs, only that in the U.S. laws prevent them from doing so. There are many examples in which same-sex marriages are culturally sanctioned (e.g., the Nuer, the Azande, the Igbo, berdaches, and the Lovedu).
Bridewealth Particularly in descent-based societies, marriage partners represent an alliance of larger social units. Bridewealth is a gift from the husband ’ s kin to the wife ’ s, which stabilizes the marriage by acting as an insurance against divorce. Brideprice is rejected as an appropriate label, because the connotations of a sale are imposed; but progeny price is considered an equivalent term. Dowry, much less common than bridewealth, correlates with low status for women. Fertility is often considered essential to the stability of a marriage. Polygyny may be practiced to ensure fertility.
Durable alliances The existence of customs such as the sororate and the levirate indicates the importance of marriage as an alliance between groups. Sororate marriages involve the widower marrying one of his deceased wife ’ s sisters. Levirate marriages involve the widow marrying one of her deceased husband ’ s brothers.
Divorce Divorce is found in many different societies. Marriages that are political alliances between groups are harder to break up than marriages that are more individual affairs. Payments of bridewealth also discourage divorce. Divorce is more common in matrilineal societies as well as societies in which postmarital residence is matrilocal. Divorce is harder in patrilocal societies as the woman may be less inclined to leave her children who, as members of their father ’ s lineage, would need to stay with him.
Divorce in Foraging Societies In foraging societies forces act to both promote and discourage divorce. Promote divorce: – Since foragers lack descent groups, marriages tend to be individual affairs with little importance placed on the political alliances. – Foragers also have very few material possessions. Discourage divorce: – The family unit is the basic unit of society and division of labor is based on gender. – The sparse populations mean that there are few alternative spouses if you divorce.
Divorce in the U.S. The U.S. has one of the world ’ s highest divorce rates. The U.S. has a very large percentage of gainfully employed women. Americans value independence.
Descent Groups A descent group is a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry. Matrilineal descent Patrilineal descent Matrilineal and patrilineal descent are types of unilineal descent in which individuals only recognize one line of descent. Kinship and Social Organization – An Interactive Tutorial An Interactive Tutorial
Descent Groups Lineage – a descent group who can demonstrate their common descent from an apical ancestor. Clan – a descent group who claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent). When a clan ’ s apical ancestor is nonhuman, it is called a totem.
Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules In tribal societies, the descent group, not the nuclear family, is the fundamental unit. In many societies, descent groups are corporate, sharing resources and property.
Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules Unilocal Residence – Patrilocality married couple lives with husband's family; associated with patrilineal descent and is more common than matrilocality. – Matrilocality married couple lives with wife's family; associated with matrilineal descent and is less common than patrilocality.
Ambilineal Descent People can choose the descent group that they want to belong to. Membership is fluid as people can change their descent group membership. With unilineal descent, membership is ascribed, but for ambilineal descent, membership is achieved.
Kinship Calculation Kinship calculation is any systemic method for reckoning kin relations. Genealogical Kin Types and Kin Terms – Kin terms are the labels given in a particular culture to different kinds of relatives. – Biological kin type refers to the degree of actual genealogical relatedness.
Kinship Calculation Bilateral Kinship – Used by most Americans and Canadians. – Kinship is traced through both male and female lines. – Kin links through males and females are perceived as being similar or equivalent. – In North American bilateral kinship there is often matrilineal skewing, a preference for relatives on the mother's side.