10 Marriage in all societies involves acceptance of an agreement, either written or verbal. Most often, this includes four categories of privileges, rights, and obligations of the marrying couple: 1. agreeing to exclusive sexual access 2. having and caring for children 3. accepting a sexual division of labor 4. agreeing to extend kinship bonds to your spouse's relatives
11 Marriage Rules Endogamy is marriage within a group of individuals. Exogamy is marriage outside the group.
12 Forms of MarriageMonogamyPolygynyPolyandryGroup marriage
13 - polygyny – a man has two or more wives at the same time monogamyserial monogamypolygamy- polygyny – a man has two or more wives at the same time- sororal polygyny - cowives are sisterspolyandry- a woman has two or more husbands at the same timefraternal polyandry – a woman is married to two or more brothersPolygynous family in Nigeria
14 Marriage Marriage is backed by social, legal, and economic forces. Monogamy is the most common form of marriage, primarily for economic reasons.In most of the world, marriage is not based on romantic love, but on economic considerations.
15 Serial MonogamyA form of marriage in which a man or woman marries a series of partners.Increasingly common among middle-class North Americans as individuals divorce and remarry.
16 Second Marriage Preferences Many societies have specific kinds of second marriage rules that anthropologists refer to as the levirate and the sororate. The levirate specifies that a widow should marry the brother of her deceased husbandA mirror image of the levirate is the sororate. It is a rule that a widower should marry the sister of his deceased wife.
17 Marriage ExchangesBride-price - payment of money from the groom’s to the bride’s kin.Bride service - the groom is expected to work for a period for the bride’s family.Dowry - payment of a woman’s inheritance at the time of marriage to her or her husband.
18 Divorce Factors contributing to divorce: Many marriages are based on ideals of romantic love or the idealization of youth.Establishing an intimate bond in a society in which people are taught to seek individual gratification is difficult.
19 Readings for the next 2 weeks: Haviland:Chapter 9Family and householdChapter 10Kinship and descent