Presentation on theme: "***Kinship system: the predominant form of kin relationships in a culture and the kinds of behavior involved. Kinship systems are often linked with the."— Presentation transcript:
***Kinship system: the predominant form of kin relationships in a culture and the kinds of behavior involved. Kinship systems are often linked with the modes of livelihood and reproduction. The kinship group performs functions of ensuring the continuity of the group by arranging marriages; maintaining social order by setting moral rules and punishing offenders; and providing for the basic needs of members by regulating production, consumption and distribution.
In Europe and the US the predominant western culture emphasizes primary relations “blood relatives,” or relations through birth from a biological mother and father. However, Blood is not a universal basis for kinship. In many cultures blood based kinship ties are based on the sex of an individual (in some cases males are considered of one blood and females are not) and in some cultures acting like kin automatically makes you part of the family ( Inuit populations).
CharactersRelationshipsKin Abbreviations Female = Married Mo mother MaleFa Father Deceased Female Is divorced fromBr Brother Deceased MaleZ Sister Female “ego” of the diagram Adopted-in femaleH husband Male “ego” of the diagram Adopted-in maleW wife Is descended fromDa daughter H Is the sibling ofS son Co cousin
Descent: The tracing of kinship relationship through parentage. Bilineal descent: the tracing of descent through both parents. Unilineal descent: the tracing of descent through only one parent. **Patrilineal Descent: A descent system that highlights the importance of men in tracing descent, determining marital residence with or near the groom’s family, and providing for inheritance of property through the male line. **Matrilineal Descent: A descent system that highlights the importance of women by tracing descent through the female line, favoring marital residence with or near the bride’s family and providing for property to be inherited through the female line.
In many cultures kinship ties are reinforced through the act of sharing and support. These relationships may be informal or ritually formalized. Food Sharing and kinship Within many cultures individuals may share food with family members and friends to reinforce this sharing and supportive rule. Adoption and Fostering Another form of sharing-based on kinship is the transfer of a child or children from the birth parents to the care of someone else. Adoption is a permanent and formal form of child transfer. Reasons for adoption or fostering may include– premarital/unwanted pregnancy or an over abundance of children.
Ritually defined ties between adults and children born to other people. (Godparents/guardians). Marriage or Marriage-like relationships (co-habitation): Anthropologists recognize that some concept of marriage exists in all cultures, though it may take different forms and serve different functions. Marriage: A union, usually between 2 people who are likely to be, but are not necessarily, co-resident, sexually involved with each other and procreative.
Endogamy vs. Exogamy Endogamy: Marriage within a particular group or locality. Exogamy: Marriage outside a particular group or locality. ***Incest Taboo: A strongly held prohibition against marrying or having sex with particular kin. Forms of Cousin Marriage: Parallel cousin: Offspring of either one’s father’s brother or one’s mother’s sister. Cross-cousin: Offspring of either one’s father’s sister or one’s mother’s brother.
Hypergyny: The groom may be wealthier more educated, older or taller Hypogyny: The bride may be wealthier more educate, older or taller Isogamy: The bride and groom have similar wealth, education, age and/or height. DowryGoods and money given by the bride’s family to the married couple Europe, Asia Agriculturalists and Industrialists GroompriceA form of dowry: good and money give by the bride’s family to the married couple and to the parent of the groom. South Asia, especially Northern India Brideprice (or bride wealth)Goods and money given by the groom’s family to the parents of the bride Asia, Africa, Central and South America; horticulturalists and pastoralists BrideserviceLabor given by the groom to the parents of the bride Southeast Asia, the Pacific and Amazonia; horticulturalists
Monogamy: Marriage between two people. Polygamy: Marriage involving multiple spouses. Polygyny: Marriage of one husband to multiple wives. Polyandry: Marriage of one wife to multiple husbands.
Household: Either one person living alone or a group of people who may or may not be related by kinship and who share living space. Nuclear household: A domestic unit containing one adult couple married or partners with or without children. Extended household: A co-residential group that comprises more than one parent-child unit. Stem household: A co-residential group that comprises only two married couples related through males, commonly found in East Asian cultures. Household headship: Primary person or persons responsible for supporting the household financially and making major decisions. Matrifocality: A household pattern in which a female (or females) is the central figure around whom other members cluster.
Changes in Descent, marriage and households have seen a rise in the past 25-30 years; due in part to globalization. Changes in Descent…Decline of Matrilineal descent world wide as result of Western European globalization. Changes in Marriage… Increased alterations in courtship, marriage ceremonies, age at marriage, marriage crisis (couples who want to marry but cannot) and marital relationships (sexual and emotional). Changes in Household… International migration or Transnationalism, Globalization and the rise of the nuclear family, and homelessness