Presentation on theme: "Marriage and Family. Unit Learning Objectives Identify Leach’s argument for what marriage can, but does not always, accomplish. Describe incest and."— Presentation transcript:
Unit Learning Objectives Identify Leach’s argument for what marriage can, but does not always, accomplish. Describe incest and exogamy. Differentiate between parallel and cross cousins, and how this distinction relates to exogamy in groups with Unilineal descent patterns. Identity endogamy and its role in socially stratified societies. Analyze how marriage functions as a form of group alliance and identity the role of dowries and lobola. Identity types of plural marriages and the conditions that they favor.
What is Marriage? No definition is broad enough to apply (easily) to all societies and situations Variation in who marriage unites Besides the notion of ‘love’, what aspects of culture is marriage associated with?
What is Marriage? Universal form or type of marriage does not exist Primary functions are observed in all culture _______________________________ Evolved various systems to perform these functions
What is Marriage? Functions of Marriage 1. Marriage forms: _________________ Provide for the material needs, social support, and enculturation of children _____________________
What is Marriage? Functions of Marriage 2. Marriage defines the _____________ ___________________________________ Regulation of _____________________between the married couple and __________________ Allocation of _________________________
What is Marriage? Functions of Marriage 3. Marriage creates ___________________ Incest taboo Establishment of trade relationships or political alliances
Marriage: Comparative Perspective Exogamy 1. 2. Incest: _________________________________________ How is ‘close relative’ defined? Is this socially constructed?
Marriage: Comparative Perspective Incest Avoidance Besides the biological component Gene flow – exchange of genes between population boundaries, increases genetic diversity What are the cultural factors? 1. 2.
‘Appreciating Anthropology’: ‘Come Join My Band, Baby’ What are the cultural factors? 1. 2. p258: “Recognition of _______________cooperation between neighboring bands.”
Marriage: Comparative Perspective Endogamy Rules requiring individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category _______________________________ Example: _________________________
Marriage: Comparative Perspective Endogamy: Maintained in two main ways 1. _______________________________ Affinal relationships kept within Reinforcing ties within groups while decreasing interactions between the groups
Marriage: Comparative Perspective Endogamy: Maintained in two main ways 2. ______________________________ Symbolically expresses and strengthens the exclusiveness of group Example: ___________________________
Marriage: Comparative Perspective Marriage alliances : Marriage establishes lasting social relationships and bonds Beyond the married couple: ______________________________________
Marriage: Comparative Perspective 1. Arranged marriages ______________________________________ Importance of advantageous relationships Remember: Nanda’s article on an arranged marriage in India
Marriage: Comparative Perspective 2. Levirate: Usually a __________of deceased husband Relations between the intermarried kin groups are __________________
Marriage: Comparative Perspective 3. Sororate : Her kin group is _______________________with another woman, for which no additional ________________________ Example - __________
Marriage Exchanges Dowry : Share of a woman’s inheritance that she takes into her marriage
Marriage Exchanges Lobola: Seen in patrilineal societies Importance:
How Many Spouses? Cultures vary on the number of spouses an individual is allowed to have at a time Four possibilities Monogamy Polygyny Polyandry Group Marriage Variations of polygamy (i.e. plural spouses)
Polygyny Form of marriage in which a man may have more than one wife Benefits 1. 2.
Polygyny No single explanation for polygyny 1. 2. 3. 4.
Polyandry Form of marriage in which a woman may have more than one husband Documented in only about a dozen societies 1. 2.
Polyandry Mostly observed in South Asia peoples 1. 2.
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