Presentation on theme: "Marriages and Families"— Presentation transcript:
1 Marriages and Families Chapter 8Marriages and Families
2 Chapter Outline Some Definitions Marriage Marriage in Comparative PerspectiveKinship DiagramsPostmarital Residence PatternsFamily and Household Forms
3 Definitions Consanguines People related by birth. Affines People related by marriage.
4 DefinitionsKin groupPeople who view themselves as relatives, share an identity based on their kin ties, and cooperate in certain kinds of activities. Nuclear familyA married couple and their children.Extended familyA group of related nuclear families.
5 Definitions Household People who live together, share family wealth and property, rely on one another for emotional support, pool labor and resources to support the family and live together.Fictive kinshipIncorporating unrelated people into a family and household, feeling toward them in the same way as consanguineous relatives.
6 Defining MarriageA culturally defined relationship between a man and a woman from different families, which regulates sexual intercourse and provides for reproduction.A division of labor in the domestic group.
7 Defining MarriageA set of rights the couple and their families obtain over each other, including rights over any children.An assignment of responsibility for enculturation to the spouses or to one or both sets of their relatives.
8 Functions of MarriageForms the social bonds and relationships that provide for material needs, support and enculturation of children.Defines the obligations the couple have toward each other and toward other people.Creates new relationships between families and other kinds of kin groups.
9 Incest TabooUniversal rule against members of the same family having sex, marrying or producing children.
10 Exogamous RulesMarriage rules prohibiting individuals from marrying a member of their own social group or category.
11 Endogamous RulesMarriage rules requiring individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category.
12 How Many Spouses? Monogamy - one spouse. Polygamy - Plural spouses. Polygyny - one man with multiple wives (allowed in most societies of the world).Polyandry - one woman with multiple husbands (rare).Group Marriage - several men and women are married simultaneously to one another.
13 Marriage AllianceA marriage that establishes an alliance between members of two kin groups.Levirate - Custom whereby a widow marries a male relative of her deceased husband.Sororate - Custom where by a widower marries a female relative of his deceased wife.
14 Marital ExchangesBridewealth - man and his relatives transfer wealth to relatives of the bride.Brideservice - husband spends a period of time working for the family of his bride.Dowry - family of a woman transfers a portion of their wealth or property to their daughter and her husband.
15 Kinship DiagramsFigure 8.1 Symbols Used on Kinship Diagrams
16 Kinship DiagramsFigure 8.2 Household forms (either here or after slide 19)
17 Postmarital Residence Influenced by inheritance patterns and economic forces.Influences which kinship relationships will be most emphasized in a society.
18 Residence Patterns Postmarital residence pattern Where a newly married couple go to live after their marriage.Patrilocal residenceCouples live with or near the husband's parents.Matrilocal residenceCouples live with or near the wife's parents.
19 Residence Patterns Ambilocal residence Postmarital residence is optional between either the wife’s or the husband’s kin.Bilocal residencePostmarital residence is with either the wife's or the husband's parents according to choice.
20 Residence Patterns Neolocal residence Couples establish a separate household apart from both the husband and wife's parents.Avunculocal residenceCouples live with the maternal uncle of the husband.
21 Family and Household Forms Two-Generation HouseholdsHouseholds made up of parents and childrenExtended HouseholdsHouseholds that include three or more generations
22 Matrifocal FamilyA family in which the mother (with or without a husband) bears most of the burden of supporting her children economically and nurturing them emotionally and intellectually.