Marriages and Families
Chapter 8 Marriages and Families
Chapter Outline Some Definitions Marriage
Marriage in Comparative Perspective Kinship Diagrams Postmarital Residence Patterns Family and Household Forms
Definitions Consanguines People related by birth. Affines
People related by marriage.
Definitions Kin group People who view themselves as relatives, share an identity based on their kin ties, and cooperate in certain kinds of activities. Nuclear family A married couple and their children. Extended family A group of related nuclear families.
People who live together, share family wealth and property, rely on one another for emotional support, pool labor and resources to support the family and live together. Fictive kinship Incorporating unrelated people into a family and household, feeling toward them in the same way as consanguineous relatives.
Defining Marriage A culturally defined relationship between a man and a woman from different families, which regulates sexual intercourse and provides for reproduction. A division of labor in the domestic group.
Defining Marriage A set of rights the couple and their families obtain over each other, including rights over any children. An assignment of responsibility for enculturation to the spouses or to one or both sets of their relatives.
Functions of Marriage Forms the social bonds and relationships that provide for material needs, support and enculturation of children. Defines the obligations the couple have toward each other and toward other people. Creates new relationships between families and other kinds of kin groups.
Incest Taboo Universal rule against members of the same family having sex, marrying or producing children.
Exogamous Rules Marriage rules prohibiting individuals from marrying a member of their own social group or category.
Endogamous Rules Marriage rules requiring individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category.
How Many Spouses? Monogamy - one spouse. Polygamy - Plural spouses.
Polygyny - one man with multiple wives (allowed in most societies of the world). Polyandry - one woman with multiple husbands (rare). Group Marriage - several men and women are married simultaneously to one another.
Marriage Alliance A marriage that establishes an alliance between members of two kin groups. Levirate - Custom whereby a widow marries a male relative of her deceased husband. Sororate - Custom where by a widower marries a female relative of his deceased wife.
Marital Exchanges Bridewealth - man and his relatives transfer wealth to relatives of the bride. Brideservice - husband spends a period of time working for the family of his bride. Dowry - family of a woman transfers a portion of their wealth or property to their daughter and her husband.
Kinship Diagrams Figure 8.1 Symbols Used on Kinship Diagrams
Kinship Diagrams Figure 8.2 Household forms (either here or after slide 19)
Influenced by inheritance patterns and economic forces. Influences which kinship relationships will be most emphasized in a society.
Residence Patterns Postmarital residence pattern
Where a newly married couple go to live after their marriage. Patrilocal residence Couples live with or near the husband's parents. Matrilocal residence Couples live with or near the wife's parents.
Residence Patterns Ambilocal residence
Postmarital residence is optional between either the wife’s or the husband’s kin. Bilocal residence Postmarital residence is with either the wife's or the husband's parents according to choice.
Residence Patterns Neolocal residence
Couples establish a separate household apart from both the husband and wife's parents. Avunculocal residence Couples live with the maternal uncle of the husband.
Family and Household Forms
Two-Generation Households Households made up of parents and children Extended Households Households that include three or more generations
Matrifocal Family A family in which the mother (with or without a husband) bears most of the burden of supporting her children economically and nurturing them emotionally and intellectually.
1. Marriage: can create important political alliances among affines can sometimes continue even after death can occur with individuals who have never met all of the above
Answer: d Marriage can create important political alliances among affines, can sometimes continue even after death and can occur with individuals who have never met.
2. What postmarital residence pattern would it be if the couple lives with or near the wife’s parents? Patrilocal Matrilocal Bilocal Avunculocal
Answer: b A matrilocal postmarital residence pattern is when the couple lives with or near the wife’s family.
3. The set of rules prohibiting marriage within his/her group is called:
endogamy a caste exogamy polyandry
Answer: c The set of rules prohibiting marriage within her/her group is called exogamy.
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