Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Marriage and the Family. What We Will Learn Is the family found in all cultures? What functions do family and marriage systems perform? Why."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 Marriage and the Family
What We Will Learn Is the family found in all cultures? What functions do family and marriage systems perform? Why do all societies have incest taboos? What economic considerations are associated with marriage in the world’s contemporary societies?
Definition of Family Social unit characterized by: economic cooperation management of reproduction child rearing common residence. a male and female adult who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship
Marriage Defined Customs formalizing the relationship between male and female adults within the family. Regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligations between a married couple. Usually involves an explicit contract or understanding and is entered into with the assumption that it will be permanent.
Same Sex Marriage The legality of same sex marriage remains a contentious issue in the United States.
Social Functions of Marriage Creates relationships between men and women that regulate mating and reproduction. Provides a mechanism for regulating the sexual division of labor. Creates a set of family relationships that provides for the material, educational, and emotional needs of children.
Question ________ is a socially approved union between a man and woman that regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligations between them. a) Reciprocity b) Pair bonding c) Marriage d) Mating
Answer: c Marriage is a socially approved union between a man and woman that regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligations between them.
The Family The family, such as this one in Japan, provides a structured environment that supports and meets the needs of children.
Postpartum Sex Taboo A husband and wife abstaining from any sexual activity for a period of time after the birth of a child.
Incest Taboos: Theories Natural Aversion - there is a natural aversion to sexual intercourse among those who have grown up together. Inbreeding - mating between close kin produces a higher incidence of genetic defects.
Incest Taboos: Theories Family Disruption– mating between family members would create intense jealousies. Expanding Social Alliances - marrying outside the family creates a wider network of interfamily alliances.
Restrictions on Marriage Partners Cultures restrict choice of marriage partners through: Exogamy Endogamy Arranged marriages Preferential cousin marriage Levirate and sororate
Restrictions on Marriage Partners Exogamy A rule requiring marriage outside of one’s own social or kinship group. Endogamy A rule requiring marriage within a specified social or kinship group.
Marrying Cousins Charles Darwin (1809–1882), the author of Origin of Species, had ten children with his wife, who was also his first cousin.
Interracial Marriage At one time in the United States, interracial marriage was against the law. Although these laws no longer exist, the majority of Blacks and Whites in the United States continue to practice racial endogamy.
Arranged Marriage Any marriage in which the selection of the spouse is outside the control of the bride and groom.
Preferential Cousin Marriage A preferred form of marriage between either parallel or cross cousins. Cross cousins Children of one’s mother’s brother or father’s sister. Parallel cousins Children of one’s mother’s sister or father’s brother.
Question The ________ addresses the prohibition on mating with certain categories of relatives. a) postpartum sex taboo b) ingestion taboo c) marriage laws d) incest taboo
Answer: d The incest taboo addresses the prohibition on mating with certain categories of relatives.
Levirate and Sororate Levirate The practice of a man marrying the widow of a deceased brother. Sororate The practice of a woman marrying the husband of her deceased sister.
Number of Spouses Monogamy Marriage of one man to one woman. Polygyny Marriage of a man to two or more women. Polyandry Marriage of a woman to two or more men.
Polygyny A man from the Rashaida Tribe in Eritrea travels by camel while his three wives walk.
Polygyny Tom Green, a 21st century polygynist from Utah, posing with his five wives and some of his twenty-nine children.
Marriage: Transfer of Rights Marriage often includes the transfer of certain rights between the marrying parties: Rights of sexual access. Legal rights to children. Rights of spouses to each other’s economic goods and services.
Economic Transactions of Marriage Bridewealth Bride service Dowry Reciprocal exchange
Bridewealth Compensation given upon marriage by the family of the groom to the family of the bride. Approximately 46% of all societies give substantial bridewealth payment as part of the marriage process. Bridewealth is most widely found in Africa, where it is estimated that 82% of societies require the payment of bridewealth.
Marriage Transactions Among the Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania, cows are used as the medium of exchange in marriage transactions.
Bride Service Men give labor to the bride’s family in exchange for a wife. He often moves in with his bride’s family, works or hunts for them, and serves a probationary period of several weeks to several years. Found in approximately 14% of societies.
Dowry Transfer of goods or money from bride’s family to the groom or the groom’s family. Practiced in less than 3% of societies. If the marriage ended in divorce, the woman was entitled to take the dowry with her.
Dowry Family members of a Kazakh bride-to-be carry her dowry on camels in Xinjiang, China.
Reciprocal Exchange Involves the roughly equal exchange of gifts between the families of both the bride and the groom. Found in approximately 6% of the societies listed in Murdock’s Ethnographic Atlas, most prominently in the Pacific region and among traditional Native Americans.
Question 4. Unlike societies with considerable material wealth, small-scale societies are more likely to offer ________ to the woman's family. a) bride service b) reciprocal exchange c) Brideprice d) a dowry
Answer: a Unlike societies with considerable material wealth, small-scale societies are more likely to offer bride service to the woman's family.
Divorce Like approximately half of all marriages in the United States, the marriage of Brad Pitt and Jennifer Aniston ended in divorce.
Divorce Across Cultures Divorce arrangements found in the many cultures of the world vary widely. Organizations such as the Roman Catholic Church prohibit divorce outright. A Hopi woman from Arizona could divorce her husband easily by simply putting his belongings outside the door.
Divorce Rates in the United States, 1950 to 2000 Year Divorce Rate/1000 Population
Factors in the Rising U.S. Divorce Rate Industrialization and urbanization have undermined traditional functions of the family. Less time spent with family members and less willingness to make sacrifices for the good of the family. Western culture emphasizes romantic love as the basis for marriage. Less stigma attached to divorce than in the past.
Marriage Residence Patterns Patrilocal (69%) Couple lives with or near relatives of the husband’s father. Matrilocal (13%) Couple lives with or near the relatives of the wife.
Marriage Residence Patterns Avunculocal (4%) Couple lives with or near the husband’s mother’s brother. Ambilocal (9%) Couple has a choice of living with relatives of the wife or the husband. Neolocal (5%) Couple forms independent residence away from relatives.
Family Structures Nuclear family – Comprises wife, husband, and children Extended family – A larger social unit, comprising relatives from three or more generations.
Nuclear Family What type of residence pattern is followed by this North American nuclear family?
Extended Family An extended family gathering in Henan Province, China.
Marital Status of U.S. Population: 1980 – Never Married Married Widowed Divorced