Presentation on theme: "Marriage and the Family"— Presentation transcript:
1Marriage and the Family Chapter 9Marriage and the Family
2What We Will Learn Is the family found in all cultures? What functions do family and marriage systems perform?Why do all societies have incest taboos?What economic considerations are associated with marriage in the world’s contemporary societies?
3Definition of Family Social unit characterized by: economic cooperationmanagement of reproductionchild rearingcommon residence.a male and female adult who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship
4Marriage DefinedCustoms formalizing the relationship between male and female adults within the family.Regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligations between a married couple.Usually involves an explicit contract or understanding and is entered into with the assumption that it will be permanent.
5Same Sex MarriageThe legality of same sex marriage remains a contentious issue in the United States.
6Social Functions of Marriage Creates relationships between men and women that regulate mating and reproduction.Provides a mechanism for regulating the sexual division of labor.Creates a set of family relationships that provides for the material, educational, and emotional needs of children.
7Question________ is a socially approved union between a man and woman that regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligations between them.ReciprocityPair bondingMarriageMating
8Answer: cMarriage is a socially approved union between a man and woman that regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligations between them.
9The FamilyThe family, such as this one in Japan, provides a structured environment that supports and meets the needs of children.
10Postpartum Sex TabooA husband and wife abstaining from any sexual activity for a period of time after the birth of a child.
11Incest Taboos: Theories Natural Aversion - there is a natural aversion to sexual intercourse among those who have grown up together.Inbreeding - mating between close kin produces a higher incidence of genetic defects.
12Incest Taboos: Theories Family Disruption– mating between family members would create intense jealousies.Expanding Social Alliances - marrying outside the family creates a wider network of interfamily alliances.
13Restrictions on Marriage Partners Cultures restrict choice of marriage partners through:ExogamyEndogamyArranged marriagesPreferential cousin marriageLevirate and sororate
14Restrictions on Marriage Partners ExogamyA rule requiring marriage outside of one’s own social or kinship group.EndogamyA rule requiring marriage within a specified social or kinship group.
15Marrying CousinsCharles Darwin (1809–1882), the author of Origin of Species, had ten children with his wife, who was also his first cousin.
16Interracial MarriageAt one time in the United States, interracial marriage was against the law.Although these laws no longer exist, the majority of Blacks and Whites in the United States continue to practice racial endogamy.
17Arranged MarriageAny marriage in which the selection of the spouse is outside the control of the bride and groom.
18Preferential Cousin Marriage A preferred form of marriage between either parallel or cross cousins.Cross cousinsChildren of one’s mother’s brother or father’s sister.Parallel cousinsChildren of one’s mother’s sister or father’s brother.
19QuestionThe ________ addresses the prohibition on mating with certain categories of relatives.postpartum sex tabooingestion taboomarriage lawsincest taboo
20Answer: dThe incest taboo addresses the prohibition on mating with certain categories of relatives.
21Levirate and Sororate Levirate The practice of a man marrying the widow of a deceased brother.SororateThe practice of a woman marrying the husband of her deceased sister.
22Number of Spouses Marriage of one man to one woman. Monogamy PolygynyMarriage of a man to two or more women.PolyandryMarriage of a woman to two or more men.
23PolygynyA man from the Rashaida Tribe in Eritrea travels by camel while his three wives walk.
24PolygynyTom Green, a 21st century polygynist from Utah, posing with his five wives and some of his twenty-nine children.
25Marriage: Transfer of Rights Marriage often includes the transfer of certain rights between the marrying parties:Rights of sexual access.Legal rights to children.Rights of spouses to each other’s economic goods and services.
26Economic Transactions of Marriage BridewealthBride serviceDowryReciprocal exchange
27BridewealthCompensation given upon marriage by the family of the groom to the family of the bride.Approximately 46% of all societies give substantial bridewealth payment as part of the marriage process.Bridewealth is most widely found in Africa, where it is estimated that 82% of societies require the payment of bridewealth.
28Marriage Transactions Among the Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania, cows are used as the medium of exchange in marriage transactions.
29Bride ServiceMen give labor to the bride’s family in exchange for a wife.He often moves in with his bride’s family, works or hunts for them, and serves a probationary period of several weeks to several years.Found in approximately 14% of societies.
30DowryTransfer of goods or money from bride’s family to the groom or the groom’s family.Practiced in less than 3% of societies.If the marriage ended in divorce, the woman was entitled to take the dowry with her.
31DowryFamily members of a Kazakh bride-to-be carry her dowry on camels in Xinjiang, China.
32Reciprocal ExchangeInvolves the roughly equal exchange of gifts between the families of both the bride and the groom.Found in approximately 6% of the societies listed in Murdock’s Ethnographic Atlas, most prominently in the Pacific region and among traditional Native Americans.
33Question4. Unlike societies with considerable material wealth, small-scale societies are more likely to offer ________ to the woman's family.bride servicereciprocal exchangeBridepricea dowry
34Answer: aUnlike societies with considerable material wealth, small-scale societies are more likely to offer bride service to the woman's family.
35DivorceLike approximately half of all marriages in the United States, the marriage of Brad Pitt and Jennifer Aniston ended in divorce.
36Divorce Across Cultures Divorce arrangements found in the many cultures of the world vary widely.Organizations such as the Roman Catholic Church prohibit divorce outright.A Hopi woman from Arizona could divorce her husband easily by simply putting his belongings outside the door.
37Divorce Rates in the United States, 1950 to 2000 YearDivorce Rate/1000 Population19502.619602.219703.519805.219904.720004.2
38Factors in the Rising U.S. Divorce Rate Industrialization and urbanization have undermined traditional functions of the family.Less time spent with family members and less willingness to make sacrifices for the good of the family.Western culture emphasizes romantic love as the basis for marriage.Less stigma attached to divorce than in the past.
39Marriage Residence Patterns Patrilocal (69%)Couple lives with or near relatives of the husband’s father.Matrilocal (13%)Couple lives with or near the relatives of the wife.
40Marriage Residence Patterns Avunculocal (4%)Couple lives with or near the husband’s mother’s brother.Ambilocal (9%)Couple has a choice of living with relatives of the wife or the husband.Neolocal (5%)Couple forms independent residence away from relatives.
41Family StructuresNuclear family – Comprises wife, husband, and childrenExtended family – A larger social unit, comprising relatives from three or more generations.
42Nuclear FamilyWhat type of residence pattern is followed by this North American nuclear family?
43Extended FamilyAn extended family gathering in Henan Province, China.
44Marital Status of U.S. Population: 1980 –1999 199019951999Never Married20.322.222.923.9Married65.561.960.959.5Widowed8.07.67.06.7Divorced126.96.36.199.9