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The Family and Human Sexuality Chapter 13. Social Institutions Organized patterns of beliefs and behavior that are centered on basic social needs. –Cultural.

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Presentation on theme: "The Family and Human Sexuality Chapter 13. Social Institutions Organized patterns of beliefs and behavior that are centered on basic social needs. –Cultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Family and Human Sexuality Chapter 13

2 Social Institutions Organized patterns of beliefs and behavior that are centered on basic social needs. –Cultural universal

3 Functionalist View 5 major tasks –Replacing personnel –Teaching new recruits –Producing and distributing goods and services –Preserving order –Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose

4 Family A set of people who are related by blood, marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship), or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society.

5 Family Variations Nuclear – a married couple and their unmarried children Extended – a family unit that includes parents and children, as well as other kin Accordion – composition changes based on changing circumstances

6 Marriage A legally sanctioned relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, as well as sexual activity, and childbearing.

7 Who to Marry? Endogamy – marriage between people of the same social category Exogamy – refers to marriage between people of different social categories

8 How Many to Marry? Monogamy- marriage uniting two partners Polygamy – marriage that unites three or more people –Polygyny- a man with multiple wives –Polyandry – a woman with multiple husbands Serial monogamy – having several monogamous marriages over a lifetime

9 Courtship and Mate Selection Aspects of Mate Selection –Incest taboo: –Homogamy: Conscious or unconscious tendency to select mate with personal characteristics similar to ones own

10 Kinship The state of being related to others

11 Descent Refers to the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations

12 Descent Patrilineal – kinship traced through fathers side of the family

13 Descent Matrilineal – kinship traced through mothers side of the family

14 Descent Bilateral – kinship traced through both the fathers side and mothers side

15 Residential Patterns Patrilocality – living with or near the husbands family Matrilocality – living with or near the wifes family Neolocality – living separate from both families

16 Authority Patriarchy –Male decision making Matriarchy –Female decision making Egalitarian –Spouses are equal

17 Structural-Functional Analysis Family performs many vital tasks –Ogburn (1934) Reproduction Protection Socialization Regulation of sexual behavior Affection and companionship Provision of social status

18 Conflict Analysis Family perpetuates inequality –Property and inheritance –Patriarchy –Race and ethnicity

19 Interactionist Analysis How individuals share and experience family life –Building emotional bonds –Building a way to view the world and interact

20 Divorce Causes of divorce –Individualism –Romantic love subsides –Women less dependent on men –Divorce is socially acceptable –Legally easier to get

21 Figure 39-1: U.S. Households by Family Type, 1940 – 2010 Source: Bureau of the Census 2010b:Table HH1.

22 Alternate Family Forms One-parent families Cohabitation Gay and lesbian couples Singlehood

23 Transition to Parenthood Little anticipatory socialization Only limited learning during pregnancy Transition quite abrupt Society lacks clear and helpful guidelines for successful parenthood

24 Child-Rearing Patterns Adoption –Transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents –Functionalist: government has a strong interest in encouraging adoption At any given time, around half a million children in the United States are living in foster care

25 Child-Rearing Patterns Dual-Income Families Rise due to economic need, coupled with a desire to pursue careers

26 Child-Rearing Patterns Single-parent families: Only one parent is present to care for children –Households headed by single fathers more than quadrupled from 1987 to 2011

27 Child-Rearing Patterns Stepfamilies –Approximately 45% of all people in U.S. will marry, divorce, and remarry

28 Human Sexuality Sexuality not limited to physical behaviors –Includes beliefs, values, and social norms that collectively govern its expression –Way human sexuality sanctioned differs widely geographically and historically –Sexual attitudes and practices change over time

29 Human Sexuality Labeling and Human Sexuality –Definition of deviant sexual behavior varied significantly over time and from one culture to another Social stigma of homosexuality Transgendered persons: people whose current gender identity does not match their physical identity at birth Transvestites: cross-dressers who wear clothing of opposite sex


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