Presentation on theme: "The History of Pattern Woven Textiles Lecture 9.1.2015 Tuulia Lampinen, Doctoral candidate Aalto University ARTS Department of Design Empirica research."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Pattern Woven Textiles Lecture 9.1.2015 Tuulia Lampinen, Doctoral candidate Aalto University ARTS Department of Design Empirica research group
Threads, yarns and cords The Fishing Net of Antrea Bast of willow, circa. 8300 BC National Museum of Finland Stones Ages Paleolithic (2,6 million – 10.000 BC) About 38.000 BC, La Quina, France First findings of thread creations from vines, sinew and gut. Mesolithic and Neolithic (12.000-5.500 BC) (9.000-2000 BC) Toolmakers grasped the meaning of twisting. Materials: Bast from willow and linden, linen from flax and hemp, nettles and ramie, followed by cotton.
Lenght of the fibre - Flexible but inelastic - Lustrous - Strong - Impervious to water At least 4000-3000 BC thread making was sophisticated.
How to get towards today? Group work: Search with the keywords 2-4 pictures of characteristic fabrics. Take a few notes of each. 1. Medallion, Antinoe, Egypt 2. Hunting scenes, Byzantium 3. Persian, Safavid, Lampas 4. Damasc, Velvet, Alto-basso, Italy, Spain 5. Brocade, Gold 6. Pomegranade, Tulip, Cintamani
Repeats, warps and wefts Suaire de Saint Victor, martyr Perse VIII century, Cathedral of Sens, France 2 warps: 34-39ends/cm 1 ground, 1 bindning 4 wefts: 160-180 picks/cm Beige, yellow, blue, white To econimise a gesture: Every 4th shuttle is not let off from hand. Change in colour order can cause a small defect in the jonction of two colours.
Brocade Supplementary patterning shuttles that work only in small parts of the widht of the fabric.
France, Lyon 17th-19th century c.1606 - Loom à la Grande Tire, c.1606, Claude Dangon, Milan In use X-XIX centuries. Simple with separate cords and drawboy. 1687 - Loom à la Petit Tire/ au boutons, Galantier et Blache, Avignon In use until XVIII century.Simple with a button at the end of cord. Designs with small repeats, for example 84 buttons. 1725 - Loom of Basile Bouchon, Lyon First one to work with hooks and blades towards continuous perforated paper. Only one row of blades and all weaving face down. 1728-1734 - Loom of Falcon, Lyon Four times more blades than in Loom of Bouchon. Rectangular cardboard pieces that where laced together. c.1744 – Loom with the mechanique of Vaucanson, France Invention of an arm to hold the beater so that the shuttle can pass more automatically. Still the using the simple with the drawboy.
Warps and Wefts - Main warp or ground warp is constructing the basic structure of the fabric. - Bindning warp is bindning the patterning wefts. - Pile warp is making the cut or uncut loops of velvet. - Slushing warp is a decorative element where floats of warp are seen on top of the fabric - Liseré weft is constructing the ground weave from selvedge to selvedge. - Lancé weft is going from selvedge to selvedge but not taking part in the ground weave. - Broché weft is always supplementary and making only small parts of the fabric.
1804 Loom with Jacquard machine Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1792-1834) On top of previous Lyonnaise inventions he promoted `lantern´ which made possible the square `cylinder´ to turn ¼ at the time. No need for a drawboy! Later Breton and Skola made some improvements to the machine. In 1984-1988 and early 1990 the cards where replaced with computer floppies in part of the machines and in 2000 the most of the looms are in direct connection to computers.
Added dia of loop fabrics Structure of terry cloth: -blue, red and green are warps - round grey balls weft Structure of a weft velveteen, in this case called corduroy: -white and black `spagetti´are wefts -white balls are warp ends.