2Incorporating Roux into a liquid Cold stock can be added to hot roux while vigorously whiskingRoom temperature roux can be added to hot stock while whisking vigorously.Most chefs feel 20 minutes = necessary to cook out roux
3Proportions of Roux to Liquid Flour +Butter =Roux +Liquid =Sauce6 oz +6 oz =12 oz +1 gal =light8 oz +8 oz =MediumHeavyVariables:The cornstarch content of a flour determines its thickening power. Cake flour, being lowest in protein and highest in starch, has more thickening power than bread flour, which is high in protein and low in starch.In addition, a dark roux has less thickening power than a lighter one, so more will be needed to thicken an equal amount of liquid.
4Buerre ManiéCombination of = parts by weight, flour and soft whole butter. Used for quick thickening at the end of the cooking process. The butter adds shine and flavor to sauces as it melts.
5Finishing TechniquesReduction Process: As sauces cook, moisture is released in the form of steam. As steam escapes, the remaining ingredients concentrate, thickening the sauce and strengthening flavors. Commonly used to thicken sauces w/o use of starches. Reduced to desired consistency. To reduce by one-half means that one-half of the original amount remains. To reduce by 1/3…. Au sec means to reduce until the liquid is nearly dry.
6StrainingSmoothness: Imporant to success. Strained through a china cap w/ several layers of cheesecloth or a fine Mesh chinois. Vegetables, herbs, spices and other seasonings are added to the sauce for flavor after straining.
7Monter au BeurreIs the process of swirling or whisking whole butter into a sauce to give it shine, flavor & richness.Used to enrich and finish small sauces
8Espagnole Family Brown sauce family is full bodied and rich. Made from brown stock to which brown roux, mirepoix and tomato puree have been added.Most often used to produce demi-glace and brown stock is used to make jus lie = 2 intermediary sauces
9Demi-Glace Espagnole reduced by ½ Usually finished w/ Madeira or sherry wine.Richer more flavorful base, it produces finer smaller sauces.There should be no taste of roux.The caramelized bones, mirepoix & tomato contribute to glossy dark chocolate brown color.
10Jus LiéAlso known as fond lié is used like jus lié to produce small sauces.Lighter & easier to make than demiRich brown stock is thickened w/ cornstarch or arrowroot & seasonedA rich brown stock simmered & reduced so that it thickens naturally because of the concentrated amounts of gelatin & other proteins
11Small Brown SaucesBordelaise: 16 oz. dry red wine, 2 oz chopped shallots, 1 bay leaf, 1 sprig thyme, 1 pinch black pepper in a saucepan. Reduce by ¾, then add demi-glace and simmer for 15 min. Strain through fine chinois. Finish w/ 2 ounces whole butter & garnish w/ beef marrow. Chasseur (Hunters Sauce): Sauté 4 oz sliced mushrooms & ½ oz diced shallots in whole butter. Add 8 fl oz white wine & reduce by 3/4 . Then add demi-glace and 6 oz diced tomtoes; simmer for 5 minutes. Poivrade: Sweat 12 oz. mirepoix in 2 T oil. Add 1 bay leaf, 1 sprig thyme and 4 parsley stems. Add 16 fl oz vinegar and 4 fl oz white wine. Reduce by ½ , add demi-glace and simmer for 40 min. Then add 20 crushed peppercorns and simmer for 5 more minutes. Strain through a fine chinois and finish w/ up to 2 oz whole butter. Robert: Saute 8 oz chopped onion in 1 oz whole butter. Add 8 fl oz dry white wine & reduce by 2/3. Add demi-glace and simmer 10 minutes. Strain and then add 2 t prepared Dijon mustard and 1 T granulated sugar.
13Beurre Blanc & Beurre Rouge Are emulsified butter sauces made w/o egg yolks.Thinner & lighter than hollandaise & béarnaise. Smooth & slightly thicker than heavy cream.
14If it breaksDon’t let the sauce get above 136°F. Butterfat will separate. If it separates, correct by cooling to 110°-120°F and whisking to reincorporate butterfat.If cooled below 85°F the butterfat will solidify.If reheated it will separate into butterfat & H2O; whisking will not re-emulsify.Cold beurre blanc can be used as a soft, flavored butter by whisking room temp until smooths out to consistency of mayo.
15Butter makes is betterBeurre fondu: French for “melted butter”; it is often served over steamed vegetables such as asparagus or poached white fish.Beurre noir: Frend for “black butter” used to describe whole butter cooked until dark brown (not black); sometimes flavored w/ vinegar or lemon juice, capers and parsley and served over fish, eggs & vegetables.Beurre noisette: French for “ brown butter” used to describe butter cooked until it is light brown color; it is flavored and used in much the same manner as noir.
16Compound ButtersMade by incorporating various seasonings into softened whole butter.Gives flavor to small sauces or topped onto steaks or fish. The butter melts quickly creating a simple sauce.Recipes: 1 lb. butters Unsalted, softened Basil Butter: Mince 2 oz basil, 2 oz shallots, 2 T lemon juice Herb Butter: Add 1 c. mixed chopped fresh herbs such as parsley or chervil Lobster or crayfish butter: Grind 8 oz of cooked lobster or crayfish meat, shells and/or coral. Clarify & strain through a fine chinois w/ cheesecloth and chill.
17Pan Gravy vs. Pan SaucesGravy: A sauce made from meat or poultry juices combined w/ liquid and thickening agent; usually made in the pan in which the meat or poultry was cooked.Pan Sauce: A sauce made from meat or poultry juices from the sauté pan, deglazed and thickened by reduction.
18CoulisSauce made from a purée of vegetables or fruit & is strained before serving.Can be served hot or cold as an accomp. Veggies, starches, meat, poultry, fish & shellfish.Made from a single base, ex: broccoli, tomatoes, sweet red peppers, cooked w/ flavoring ingredients & pureed like tomato sauce