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10.2 Sauce. Objectives Identify 5 mother sauces and various smaller sauces Identify 5 mother sauces and various smaller sauces Discuss various thickening.

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Presentation on theme: "10.2 Sauce. Objectives Identify 5 mother sauces and various smaller sauces Identify 5 mother sauces and various smaller sauces Discuss various thickening."— Presentation transcript:

1 10.2 Sauce

2 Objectives Identify 5 mother sauces and various smaller sauces Identify 5 mother sauces and various smaller sauces Discuss various thickening and finishing techniques Discuss various thickening and finishing techniques Describe essential parts of sauce Describe essential parts of sauce Prepare various sauces Prepare various sauces

3 Key Terms Mother/Leading sauce Reduction Small/Compound sauce Monter Au Buerre Roux Béchamel Slurry Velouté Beurre Manié Espagnole (brown) LiaisonTomato TemperHollandaise Jus Lié Demi-Glace

4 Definition A sauce is a liquid + a thickening agent + seasonings A sauce is a liquid + a thickening agent + seasonings  Start with good stock  Properly use thickening agents for desired texture, flavor and appearance  Use seasonings to achieve desired flavor

5 Thickening Agents Most methods of thickening sauces employ gelatinization. Most methods of thickening sauces employ gelatinization. Gelatinization: starch granules absorb moisture when placed in a liquid and heated Gelatinization: starch granules absorb moisture when placed in a liquid and heated The starch granules swell and liquid becomes thicker The starch granules swell and liquid becomes thicker

6 Thickening Agents Typical starches for thickening include Typical starches for thickening include Flour Flour Cornstarch Cornstarch Arrowroot Arrowroot Potato starch, rice flour, tapioca, gums and colloids. Potato starch, rice flour, tapioca, gums and colloids.

7 Starch Thickening

8 Starch Thickening Power

9 Roux 1 part flour 1 part flour 1 part fat 1 part fat  Coating starch granules with fat prevents lumps and lumping when adding liquid  Cold stock to hot roux  Hot stock to cold roux

10 Roux

11 Roux Stages White White  Cooked briefly, removed as soon as a frothy, bubbly appearance develops  Used in white sauces; béchamel

12 Roux Stages Blond Blond  Cooked slightly longer until a little color develops from caramelization of flour  Ivory to yellow color  Richer flavor  velouté

13 Roux Stages Brown Brown  Cooked to a dark color with a nutty aroma and flavor  Less thickening power  Espagnole

14 Roux Stages

15 Preparing Roux Melt clarified butter or other fat Melt clarified butter or other fat Add flour to form a paste Add flour to form a paste  Bread and high gluten have less starch compared to AP, pastry or cake Cook over medium heat to desired color Cook over medium heat to desired color The thickening power of flour begins near boiling The thickening power of flour begins near boiling

16 Incorporating Roux Cold stock, hot roux; hot stock, cold roux Cold stock, hot roux; hot stock, cold roux  Room temperature Whisk Whisk Cook about 20 minutes to remove flour taste Cook about 20 minutes to remove flour taste

17 Roux Guidelines Avoid aluminum pots Avoid aluminum pots Heavy bottom pot Heavy bottom pot Avoid extreme temperatures Avoid extreme temperatures Avoid over thickening Avoid over thickening

18 Beurre Manié Equal weight butter/flour kneaded into a paste and formed into small balls. Equal weight butter/flour kneaded into a paste and formed into small balls. Quick thicken at finish Quick thicken at finish

19 Cornstarch Fine white powder of pure starch derived from corn Fine white powder of pure starch derived from corn Twice the thickening power of flour Twice the thickening power of flour  Two types of starch molecules  Amylose (long) [gelling]  Amylopectin (short, branched) [thickening]

20 AmyloseAmylopectin Cloudy when Cool Relatively high clarity Forms firm heavy-bodied gel when cooled Thickens, does not gel Tightens and weeps over time Does not weep over time Not freezer stable Does not weep when thawed Much thicker cold than hot Same thickness Tends to mask flavors Less likely to mask flavors

21 Slurry Cornstarch mixed with a cool liquid Cornstarch mixed with a cool liquid  Reacts instantly with heat Slurry can be added to cold or hot liquid Slurry can be added to cold or hot liquid  If hot whisk constantly Moderately cook 5 minutes to clear taste Moderately cook 5 minutes to clear taste

22 Liaison Mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream Mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream  Whisk together 1 part yolk : 3 parts cream  TEMPER yolk/cream mixture by whisking in a small amount of hot liquid  Whisk warmed liaison into hot liquid

23 Liaison Remember Remember  Plain egg yolks coagulate between 149°F. and 158°F.  Yolk/cream mixture coagulates between 180°F. and 185°F.

24 Finishing Techniques Reduction Reduction  As sauce cooks, moisture is released and sauce concentrates (thickens) Straining Straining  China cap and cheese cloth or Chinois  Wringing Method: Pour sauce through cheesecloth into bowl. Twist both ends of cheesecloth to strain liquid from solids Monter au Beurre Monter au Beurre  Whisking in butter at end to enrich

25 Sauce Families LEADING or MOTHER or GRAND LEADING or MOTHER or GRAND Béchamel Béchamel Velouté Velouté Espagnole (brown sauce) Espagnole (brown sauce) Tomato Tomato Hollandaise Hollandaise

26 Béchamel Rich, creamy, smooth Rich, creamy, smooth Onion and clove apparent, not overwhelming Onion and clove apparent, not overwhelming Color of cream Color of cream Coat foods lightly Coat foods lightly Thickening scalded milk with white roux, flavored with onion and clove

27 Small Béchamel Sauces

28 Velouté White or fish stock and blond roux White or fish stock and blond roux Made from veal or chicken, base for 2 intermediary sauces; Allemande and Suprême Made from veal or chicken, base for 2 intermediary sauces; Allemande and Suprême Rich, smooth Rich, smooth Should taste liquid (chicken/fish) Should taste liquid (chicken/fish) Ivory-yellowish color Ivory-yellowish color Thick enough to cling Thick enough to cling

29 Velouté Fish Stock + Blond Roux = Veloute Chicken Stock + Blond Roux = Veloute + Cream = Suprême Chicken Stock + Blond Roux = Veloute + Liaison & Lemon = Allemande Veal Stock + Blond Roux = Veloute + Liaison & Lemon = Allemande

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31 Espagnole Brown stock, brown roux, mirepoix, tomato, sachet Brown stock, brown roux, mirepoix, tomato, sachet Full bodied and rich Full bodied and rich Generally used to make demi-glace (intermediary) Generally used to make demi-glace (intermediary)

32 Demi-glace Equal amounts, by weight, of brown sauce and brown stock, reduced by half Equal amounts, by weight, of brown sauce and brown stock, reduced by half Jus Lié Jus Lié  Used like demi-glace  Brown stock thickened with cornstarch or arrowroot or thickened by reduction

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34 Tomato Basic tomato sauce contains tomatoes, vegetables (mirepoix), herbs, spices cooked and pureed Basic tomato sauce contains tomatoes, vegetables (mirepoix), herbs, spices cooked and pureed  Often meat and/or bones are added  Derivatives: Creole, Portuguese Gastrique Gastrique  Caramelized sugar deglazed with vinegar used to flavor tomato or savory fruit sauces

35 Hollandaise Egg yolks, water/lemon/vinegar, butter Egg yolks, water/lemon/vinegar, butter Emulsified Emulsified  Unmixable liquids, such as oil and water are forced (connected) into a uniform distribution, in this case with lecithin from egg yolk Smooth, buttery with vinegar and lemon taste, no signs of separation, nappe nicely covers, not heavy like mayonnaise Smooth, buttery with vinegar and lemon taste, no signs of separation, nappe nicely covers, not heavy like mayonnaise

36 Hollandaise Carême method Carême method  Cook egg and water based ingredients (or reduction) first to a thick consistency  Whisk in pats of whole butter, or warmed clarified butter to emulsify the butterfat and thin the continuous phase

37 Hollandaise Escoffier method Escoffier method  Warm egg and water based ingredients  Whisk in whole or clarified butter  Cook to desired consistency

38 Hollandaise Blender method Blender method  Yolks, water lemon juice and seasonings in blender and blend 5 seconds  Add 175°F. butter in a steady stream  Strain, adjust seasonings

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40 Hollandaise Temperature Temperature  140°F °F. Broken Broken  For 1 qt., 1 Tbsp. water in clean bowl, whisk in sauce  If overcooked or too much butter add 1 yolk to water

41 Buerre Blanc Emulsified butter sauce without egg Emulsified butter sauce without egg  Shallots, wine, wine vinegar, butter  Thinner than hollandaise Temperature Temperature  110°F °F. For Rouge: substitute red wine and red wine vinegar for white For Rouge: substitute red wine and red wine vinegar for white

42 Buerre Blanc Method Method  6.25% (bw) shallots, minced  25% (bw) dry white wine  25% (bw) white wine vinegar  Reduce by 90% (a sec)  12.5 % (bw) heavy cream, optional  Whisk in butter, strain

43 Compound butters Made by incorporating various seasonings into softened butter Made by incorporating various seasonings into softened butter

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45 Pan Gravy

46 Coulis Sauce made of pureé of vegetables and/or fruit

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