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10.2 Sauce.

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Presentation on theme: "10.2 Sauce."— Presentation transcript:

1 10.2 Sauce

2 Objectives Identify 5 mother sauces and various smaller sauces
Discuss various thickening and finishing techniques Describe essential parts of sauce Prepare various sauces

3 Key Terms Mother/Leading sauce Reduction Small/Compound sauce
Monter Au Buerre Roux Béchamel Slurry Velouté Beurre Manié Espagnole (brown) Liaison Tomato Temper Hollandaise Jus Lié Demi-Glace

4 Definition A sauce is a liquid + a thickening agent + seasonings
Start with good stock Properly use thickening agents for desired texture, flavor and appearance Use seasonings to achieve desired flavor

5 Thickening Agents Most methods of thickening sauces employ gelatinization. Gelatinization: starch granules absorb moisture when placed in a liquid and heated The starch granules swell and liquid becomes thicker

6 Thickening Agents Typical starches for thickening include Flour
Cornstarch Arrowroot Potato starch, rice flour, tapioca, gums and colloids.

7 Starch Thickening

8 Starch Thickening Power

9 Roux 1 part flour 1 part fat
Coating starch granules with fat prevents lumps and lumping when adding liquid Cold stock to hot roux Hot stock to cold roux

10 Roux

11 Roux Stages White Cooked briefly, removed as soon as a frothy, bubbly appearance develops Used in white sauces; béchamel

12 Roux Stages Blond Cooked slightly longer until a little color develops from caramelization of flour Ivory to yellow color Richer flavor velouté

13 Roux Stages Brown Cooked to a dark color with a nutty aroma and flavor
Less thickening power Espagnole

14 Roux Stages

15 Preparing Roux Melt clarified butter or other fat
Add flour to form a paste Bread and high gluten have less starch compared to AP, pastry or cake Cook over medium heat to desired color The thickening power of flour begins near boiling

16 Incorporating Roux Cold stock, hot roux; hot stock, cold roux
Room temperature Whisk Cook about 20 minutes to remove flour taste

17 Roux Guidelines Avoid aluminum pots Heavy bottom pot
Avoid extreme temperatures Avoid over thickening

18 Beurre Manié Equal weight butter/flour kneaded into a paste and formed into small balls. Quick thicken at finish

19 Cornstarch Fine white powder of pure starch derived from corn
Twice the thickening power of flour Two types of starch molecules Amylose (long) [gelling] Amylopectin (short, branched) [thickening]

20 Amylose Amylopectin Cloudy when Cool Relatively high clarity
Forms firm heavy-bodied gel when cooled Thickens, does not gel Tightens and weeps over time Does not weep over time Not freezer stable Does not weep when thawed Much thicker cold than hot Same thickness Tends to mask flavors Less likely to mask flavors

21 Slurry Cornstarch mixed with a cool liquid Reacts instantly with heat
Slurry can be added to cold or hot liquid If hot whisk constantly Moderately cook 5 minutes to clear taste

22 Liaison Mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream
Whisk together 1 part yolk : 3 parts cream TEMPER yolk/cream mixture by whisking in a small amount of hot liquid Whisk warmed liaison into hot liquid

23 Liaison Remember Plain egg yolks coagulate between 149°F. and 158°F.
Yolk/cream mixture coagulates between 180°F. and 185°F.

24 Finishing Techniques Reduction
As sauce cooks, moisture is released and sauce concentrates (thickens) Straining China cap and cheese cloth or Chinois Wringing Method: Pour sauce through cheesecloth into bowl. Twist both ends of cheesecloth to strain liquid from solids Monter au Beurre Whisking in butter at end to enrich

25 Sauce Families LEADING or MOTHER or GRAND Béchamel Velouté
Espagnole (brown sauce) Tomato Hollandaise

26 Béchamel Rich, creamy, smooth
Thickening scalded milk with white roux, flavored with onion and clove Rich, creamy, smooth Onion and clove apparent, not overwhelming Color of cream Coat foods lightly

27 Small Béchamel Sauces

28 Velouté White or fish stock and blond roux
Made from veal or chicken, base for 2 intermediary sauces; Allemande and Suprême Rich, smooth Should taste liquid (chicken/fish) Ivory-yellowish color Thick enough to cling

29 Velouté Fish Stock + = Veloute Chicken Stock Cream Liaison & Lemon
BlondRoux = Veloute Chicken Stock Cream Suprême Liaison & Lemon Allemande Veal Stock


31 Espagnole Brown stock, brown roux, mirepoix, tomato, sachet
Full bodied and rich Generally used to make demi-glace (intermediary)

32 Demi-glace Equal amounts, by weight, of brown sauce and brown stock, reduced by half Jus Lié Used like demi-glace Brown stock thickened with cornstarch or arrowroot or thickened by reduction


34 Tomato Basic tomato sauce contains tomatoes, vegetables (mirepoix), herbs, spices cooked and pureed Often meat and/or bones are added Derivatives: Creole, Portuguese Gastrique Caramelized sugar deglazed with vinegar used to flavor tomato or savory fruit sauces

35 Hollandaise Egg yolks, water/lemon/vinegar, butter Emulsified
Unmixable liquids, such as oil and water are forced (connected) into a uniform distribution, in this case with lecithin from egg yolk Smooth, buttery with vinegar and lemon taste, no signs of separation, nappe nicely covers, not heavy like mayonnaise

36 Hollandaise Carême method
Cook egg and water based ingredients (or reduction) first to a thick consistency Whisk in pats of whole butter, or warmed clarified butter to emulsify the butterfat and thin the continuous phase

37 Hollandaise Escoffier method Warm egg and water based ingredients
Whisk in whole or clarified butter Cook to desired consistency

38 Hollandaise Blender method
Yolks, water lemon juice and seasonings in blender and blend 5 seconds Add 175°F. butter in a steady stream Strain, adjust seasonings


40 Hollandaise Temperature 140°F. - 150°F. Broken
For 1 qt., 1 Tbsp. water in clean bowl, whisk in sauce If overcooked or too much butter add 1 yolk to water

41 Buerre Blanc Emulsified butter sauce without egg
Shallots, wine, wine vinegar, butter Thinner than hollandaise Temperature 110°F °F. For Rouge: substitute red wine and red wine vinegar for white

42 Buerre Blanc Method 6.25% (bw) shallots, minced
25% (bw) dry white wine 25% (bw) white wine vinegar Reduce by 90% (a sec) 12.5 % (bw) heavy cream, optional Whisk in butter, strain

43 Compound butters Made by incorporating various seasonings into softened butter


45 Pan Gravy

46 Coulis Sauce made of pureé of vegetables and/or fruit


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