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On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 CHAPTER 11 STOCKS AND SAUCES.

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Presentation on theme: "On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 CHAPTER 11 STOCKS AND SAUCES."— Presentation transcript:

1 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey CHAPTER 11 STOCKS AND SAUCES

2 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Pretest What is mirepoix and why is it added to stock? Compare & contrast a stock and a broth. List 3 differences in the production of a white stock and a brown stock. Name three of the classic “mother” or leading sauces. Lowfat sauce made from vegetables or fruit is called ______.

3 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Stocks Stock Flavored liquid Key to a great soup, sauce, or braised dish Foundation for many classic and modern dishes: “Dirty rice, Chix breast sauté w/ roasted red pepper sauce, Chicken stuffed w/ spinach & ricotta cheese in safffron sauce” White stock Brown stock Fish stock and fumet (foo-MAY) Court bouillon

4 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey White Stock Ingredients – page 200 Yield: 2 gal.(8 lt) Bones: veal, chix, beef15 lb Cold water: 3 gal Mirepoix: 2 lb Sachet: bay leaves 2 dried thyme ½ tsp peppercorns ½ tsp parsley stems 8 Fat free & very low sodium

5 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Mirepoix Ingredients

6 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey White Stock Method 1. Cut washed bones in pieces 3-4 inches 2. Cover bones with cold water, bring water to boil, reduce & simmer, skim scum frequently & discard. 3. Add mirepoix & sachet to simmering stock 4. Continue simmering & skimming for 6-8 hrs 5. Strain, cool and refrigerate

7 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Simmering

8 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Brown Stock

9 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Variation – making brown stock 1. First roast bones to caramelize then remove bones to stockpot; reserve fat. 2. Deglaze the roasting pan with part of water 3. Add deglazing liquid & rest of cold water to bones. Bring to a boil & reduce to simmer & frequently skim the scum 4. Add portion of reserved fat to roasting pan & sauté the mirepoix until evenly browned (carmelized). Then add to the simmering stock. 5. Add tomato paste & sachet to stock & simmer 6-8 hrs. 6. Strain, cool, refrigerate – review the principles for cooling a liquid.

10 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Principles of Stock Making Start the stock in cold water Simmer the stock gently Skim the stock frequently Strain the stock carefully using a chinois or china cap (p 80) Cool the stock quickly Store the stock properly – frozen in cubes or quart containers, label & date

11 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Fish stock or fish fumet differs from white stock Uses fish bones or crustacean shells Mushroom trimmings Other ingredients same a white stock Fish Fumet: “sweat” the vegetables first over low heat in small amt fat; do not brown. Food releases moisture & flavor which is then added to other foods.

12 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Commercial Bases A commercially produced product Available in powdered, paste, or cube form Generally considered inferior to a well-made stock Check the label for salt content, which is generally high – but specialty bases exist- Edam bases Possibility of saving labor costs Shifts risk for contamination to manufacturer You may taste an excellent example

13 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Other Foundation Items Court bouillon – simmer vegetables & seasonings in water & acidic liquid such as vinegar or wine. Used to poach fish or vegetables Nage – add herbs & aromatic seasonings to reduced & strained court bouillon – use as a sauce or broth with seafood Glaze – dramatic reduction & concentration of a stock – 1 gallon stock makes 1-2 cups Broth – flavorful liquid made from simmering meat and/or vegetables

14 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Techniques to know, see, do Purpose: increase flavor healthfully Carmelize - sugars Deglaze – dissolve food particles from sauté or roasting pan pan Reduction – concentrate & strengthen flavors through evaporation – by ½ or > Gelatinization: starch granules absorb moisture when placed in liquid & heated ( ↑ mouth feel)

15 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Sauces Thickened liquid plus seasoning; used to flavor and enhance other foods; fine sauces distinguish a restaurant Fine sauces are made by Using well-made stocks (vs a base) Using thickening techniques properly (tempering eggs, adding cool roux to hot sauce or hot roux to cold stock) Use seasonings properly (dried herbs & spices added at beginning of cooking, add fresh herbs last, proper substitution of dried for fresh)

16 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey White, Blond, & Brown Roux

17 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Thickening Agents Roux - = parts by wt of flour & fat cooked together to form a paste; cooking starch in the fat before adding liquid breaks down starch molecules & prevents some of the gelatinization. What type of flour has more starch & is best for roux? White (cook few minutes)– used for béchamel sauce Blond – (cook longer) used for velouté sauce Brown – (cook longest) nutty flavor, used for brown sauce Roux should be stiff Incorporating Roux into a liquid Cold stock into a hot roux or room temperature roux into a hot stock Then continue cooking to remove raw taste Beurre Manié – like roux but with butter & flour Liaison – use eggs & heavy cream

18 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Thickening Agents Cornstarch- Gelatinization (G) – Asian, glossy sheen, less stable than roux Arrowroot- G – clearer finish, more stable than cornstarch – good for strawberry pie Coulis - puree vegetables to provide a smooth, thick mouthfeel - Finishing Techniques used to thicken/concentrate Reduction

19 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Mother or “Leading” Sauces Liquid & thickener: 1.Béchamel – milk & roux (clarified butter) (basis of cheese sauce, nantua sauce) 2. Velouté- white stock & roux (basis of allemande or mushroom sauce) 3. Espagnole (brown)- brown stock & roux (basis of Demi-glace, bordelaise sauce) 4. Tomato – tomato (basis of creole or spanish sauce) 5. Hollandaise – butter and egg yolk

20 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Compound Butter

21 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Compound Butters Made by incorporating various seasonings into softened whole butter Ingredients can be combined in a blender, food processor, or mixer Used as a sauce or for seasoning other dishes – chef in video put on lamb chop

22 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Other Sauces and Contemporary Sauces Pan gravy (a brown sauce w/ pan drippings) Coulis- purée of fruit or veg / serve hot or cold chop, sauté, deglaze w/ wine or stock, puree, strain raspberry sauce – example of uncooked coulis Salsa – mango is a popular with fish Vegetable juice sauces Broths

23 On Cooking, 3rd Edition Sarah R. Labensky, and Alan M. Hause ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Post-test What is mirepoix and why is it added to stock? Compare & contrast a stock and a broth. List 3 differences in the production of a white stock and a brown stock. Name three of the classic “mother” or leading sauces. Lowfat sauce made from vegetables or fruit is called _________.


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