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 Sauces  Sauces- Thickened liquids that complement other foods.  Thousands of sauces.  Considered by many to be the most challenging skill to master.

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Presentation on theme: " Sauces  Sauces- Thickened liquids that complement other foods.  Thousands of sauces.  Considered by many to be the most challenging skill to master."— Presentation transcript:


2  Sauces  Sauces- Thickened liquids that complement other foods.  Thousands of sauces.  Considered by many to be the most challenging skill to master in the kitchen.

3  The Role of Sauces  Can be traced back over 2000 years.  Originally very intensely flavored, and often heavily thickened.  As sauced evolved they began to compliment food as opposed to overpowering.

4  What Sauces do for Food  Improve appearance of food by adding color and shine.  Contribute flavors that complement or accent the flavors of a particular dish.  Add moisture to keep dish from tasting dry and unappetizing.  Adds richness, especially if sauce is high in fat.  Add visual appeal to a simple cent of the plate item and command a higher value on the menu.

5  Thickening Sauces  Nappe- sauce is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon.  Several different ways to thicken sauces using starches: Roux, slurry or beurre manie.

6  Starches  Starch is a category of carbohydrates used to thicken sauces in including flour, cornstarch and arrowroot.  When starches are combined with cold water a process called gelatinization occurs, and the sauce becomes thick.  When using starches, one must bring liquid to full boil.

7  Roux  Roux is an equal part flour and fat by weight that is cooked to a variety of doneness and used to thicken liquids.

8  3 Types of Roux  White roux cooks for 3 to 5 minutes- color should not darken.  Blond roux cooks for 10 minutes- have a straw color.  Brown roux cooks 20-30 minutes- brown color  When adding roux, cool roux is added to hot liquid to reduce lumps.

9  Slurry  Mixture of cold liquid and starch.  Must be mixed well to avoid lumps.  Slowly pour into boiling water, whisk and judge thickness.

10  Cornstarch  Made from corn, produces a glossy finish and is inexpensive.  Sauces thickened with cornstarch gradually become thinner the longer they are held hot.

11  Arrowroot  Derived from a tropical root.  Inexpensive, and produces a glossy finish like cornstarch, but will not loose its thickening ability if held hot.  Best choice if a thickened product is to be frozen for later use.

12  Flour  Flour is not a pure starch like arrowroot and cornstarch, so product will not be glossy.  Whitewash- slurry made from water and flour, often used when making American style gravy.

13  Beurre Manie  Mixture of softened whole butter and flour.  Used to thicken sauces and stews at last minute.  Has a slight flour taste because it is uncooked.

14  Reduction  Helps to concentrate flavor as well as thicken.  Gelatin will help to thicken sauce or stew.  Expensive because they take a long time to make.  Chefs refer to reduction based sauces by fractions or percentages.

15  Puree  Another way to thicken is to add finely ground solids to them.  Fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts.  Coulis- made from pureed fruits or vegetables with a flavored liquid.

16  Egg Yolk  Thickening with egg yolks requires practice.  If egg yolks are added directly to hot liquid they will curdle.  Tempering- mix yolk with small amount of cream.  The cream mixture that is used to thicken the liquid is then called a liaison.  Never heat egg yolk mixtures over 179 degrees.

17  Bread  One of the oldest and most rustic ingredients used to thicken sauces.  Toasted or untoasted bread crumbs can be added to liquid.  Not used too much today because results in pasty substance.

18  Mother Sauces  French organized a system of classification for 5 main “Mother” sauces.  Béchamel or white sauce.  Veloute  Brown- Espagnole  Tomato  Hollandaise

19  Béchamel / White  Milk thickened with white roux flavored with onion, bay leaf and small amount of nutmeg.

20  Veloute  Veloute- translates to velvety.  Made by thickening white stock with blond roux.  Final product should be well flavored and free from defects.

21  Brown Sauce  Brown sauce is a thickened brown stock.  Demi-glace- Reducing espagnole sauce for hours until very concentrated and full flavored  Espagnole- slowly reducing brown stock and adding small amount of tomato product and brown roux for hours.

22  Tomato Sauce  Puree thickened sauce.  Tomatoes cooked with flavoring such as vegetables, herbs and even with pieces of raw or cured meats.

23  Hollandaise  Hot emulsified sauce that combines egg yolks and warm clarified butter.  Easily broken  Slowly add clarified butter to warmed egg yolks while whisking, finish with lemon juice.

24  Safety Concerns with Hollandaise  Has been source of salmonella outbreaks since eggs are not fully cooked.  Please used pasteurized eggs.

25  Nontraditional Sauces  Butter Sauces  Berurre Blanc- delicate emulsified sauce that is almost all butter.  Requires attention and practice.  Beurre Noisette- brown butter finished with lemon juice- used for mainly fish.

26  Salsa  Salsa are less acidic than relishes. While salsas vary considerably they originate in Latin American Cuisine and tend to be spicy due to chilies.

27  Relishes  Relishes are typically a combination of coarsely chipped vegetables and fruits marinated with a large amount of vinegar. Many relishes are also noticeably sweet.

28  Chutney  Originate in India, similar to relishes but use different spices. Chutneys range form spicy hot or mild. Some chutneys are cooked while others are a simple mix of raw ingredients.

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