Unit 255 Prepare & Cook Basic Hot & Cold Sauces Basic Stocks Thickening Agents Basic Sauces
Definition of a Stock A Stock is a liquid that has been formed by extracting flavours, nutrients and salts during the cooking process from Bones, Vegetables and aromatic Herbs. Clear in appearance Delicate flavour Clear of grease
Storage of Stocks. When cooked stocks must be strained and cooled within 90 minutes and stored in a fridge, stocks can be frozen. All stocks must be re-boiled after storage prior to being used.
Type of Stocks White Beef Stock Brown Beef Stock Vegetable Stock Chicken Stock Fish Stock
Faults in Stock Production. STOCK CLOUDY. Incorrect ingredients, poorly prepared. Incorrect cooking. Stock not skimmed. Old stock. STOCK LACKS FLAVOUR. Incorrect ratio of ingredients to liquid. Cooking time too short.
Glazes A Glaze is a reduction of stock, which is formed by Evaporation of the liquid. It can be stored and used to enhance the flavour of other stocks and sauces. It can be reconstituted by adding water to form a stock.
Tips on Stocks Never season a stock. Never boil a stock. Never add Potatoes, Swede, Turnip. Always re-boil stocks. Convenience Stock.
Thickening Agents. There are 3 main types of thickening agent used in the production of a sauce. ROUX BEURRE MANIE STARCHES
ROUX A Roux is a mixture of FLOUR & FAT, gently cooked together over low heat. White Roux: Cooked for 2 -3 mins this allows the flour to COOK OUT, White in colour. Blond Roux: Cooked for mins, until a Sandy colour. Brown Roux: Cooked for mins, until Brown in colour
BEURRE MANIE. This is an equal mixture of Flour & Butter. Kneaded together and then whisked into the liquid in small quantities, thickening as it cooks out. This is also known as a cold roux or pounded butter.
STARCHES. Cornflour, Arrowroot, Potato Flour, Rice Flour & Barley Flour. These are used as a thickening agent. Arrowroot & cornflour are the most commonly used. The starch must be mixed with cold water before adding to the hot liquid.
BECHAMEL TYPE OF ROUX TYPE OF LIQUID COOKING TIME DERIVATIVES WHITE ROUX MILK MINS PARSLEY, ONION, CHEESE, MUSTARD, EGG ANCHOVY.
VELOUTE TYPE OF ROUX TYPE OF LIQUID COOKING TIME DERIVATIVES BLOND STOCK 45 MINS CHICKEN, MUSHROOM, FISH, CAPER
ESPAGNOLE. TYPE OF ROUX TYPE OF LIQUID COOKING TIME DERIVATIVES BROWN ROUX STOCK 6 HOURS MADEIRA, BROWN ONION, CHASSEUR, PIQUANT, DEMI GLACE.
TOMATO TYPE OF ROUX TYPE OF LIQUID COOKING TIME DERIVATIES BLOND ROUX STOCK MINS CAN BE USED AS A BASE SAUCE FOR MANY OTHERS
JUS LIE TYPE OF ROUX TYPE OF LIQUID COOKING TIME DERIVATIVES ARROWROOT STOCK 2 HRS FOR STOCK & 10 MIN TO COOK OUT ARROWROOT. CAN BE USED INSTEAD OF DEMI GLACE.
COLD SAUCES Vinaigrette Basic recipe 3 parts Oil to 1 part Vinegar. Various types of Oils and Vinegars can be used, with the addition of herbs and spices.
Mayonnaise Can be used as a basic sauce as an accompaniment to a dish or can be extended to produce Maire Rose, Tartare. This sauce must be stored below 5c. If producing a fresh Mayonnaise pasteurised Egg Yolks must be used.
Horseradish. Horseradish is a sauce traditionally served with Roast Beef, it can be served with Chicken Maryland or Smoked Trout. Mint Sauce. Mint Sauce is traditionally served with Cold or Hot Roast Lamb or Mutton.