Bina Nusantara University 3 Chapter Objectives 1.Prepare basic mirepoix. 2.Flavor liquids using a sachet or spice bag. 3.Prepare white veal or beef stock, and brown stock. 4.Cool and store stocks correctly. 5.Prepare meat glazes. 6.Evaluate the quality of convenience bases and use convenience bases. 7.Explain the functions of sauces and list five qualities that a sauce adds to foods. 8.Prepare white, blond, and brown roux and use them to thicken liquids. 9.Prepare and use beurre manié.
Bina Nusantara University 4 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) 10. Thicken liquids with cornstarch and other starches. 11. Prepare and use egg-yolk-and-cream liaison. 12. Finish a sauce with raw butter (monter au beurre). 13. Prepare the five leading sauces: Béchamel, Velouté, Brown Sauce or Espagnole, Tomato Sauce, and Hollandaise. 14. Prepare small sauces from leading sauces. 15. Identify and prepare five simple butter sauces. 16. Prepare compound butters and list their uses. 17. Prepare pan gravies. 18. Prepare miscellaneous hot and cold sauces.
Bina Nusantara University 5 The importance of stock in the kitchen is indicated by the French word for stock fond, meaning “foundation” or “base.”
Bina Nusantara University 6 Bones Bones are the main ingredient of stocks (except water) Chicken stock from chicken bones Brown stock from beef or veal bones Fish stock from fish bones and trimmings White stock – Veal or beef bones, chicken bones and pork bones sometimes in small quantities Lamb, game, turkey, lobster have specialized uses
Bina Nusantara University 7 Mirepoix The second most important contributors to flavor in a stock Ingredients: –Onions @ 50% –Celery @ 25% –Carrots @ 25% A white mirepoix is made without onions to keep the stock colorless In a vegetable stock a variety of vegetable may be used. Cut mirepoix coarsely in uniform size
Bina Nusantara University 8 Acid products –Help to dissolve connective material –Sometimes used to extract flavor and body from bones –Tomatoe products for brown stocks –Wine, especially for fish stock Scraps and leftovers –Can be used if clean, wholesome, and appropriate –Remember a stockpot is not a garbage disposal
Bina Nusantara University 9 Seasonings and Spices Salt is generally not used in a stock. Stocks are frequently reduced, concentrating the salt flavor Herbs and spices are to be used at a minimum, so they will not dominate the stock Sachet bag - herbs and spices places in a cheesecloth bag and tied Bouquet garni - an assortment of herbs and aromatic vegetables tied together (leeks, celery, thyme sprigs, bay leaf, and parsley)
Bina Nusantara University 10 Blanching Bones- Procedures The reason we blanch bones is to get rid of the impurities that cause cloudiness Procedures for blanching bones: –Rinse in cold water –Place bones in stockpot or steam-jacketed kettle, cover with cold water –Bring water to a boil - impurities will coagulate –Drain the bone and rinse well Fish bones are not blanched
Bina Nusantara University 11 Procedures for Preparing Brown Stock Cut the bones into 3-4 inch pieces Place bones in roasting pan and place in a 375° F oven until well browned, usually about an hour Drain and reserve the fat from the roasting pan. Deglaze the pan with water Add mirepoix and vegetables to the roasting pan and sauté until golden brown Bring bones to a boil in stock pot, reduce to a simmer, remove scum- ICK Add browned mirepoix and vegetables to bones Keep at a simmer, not a boil Skim surface Simmer for 3-6 hours Strain through a cheese cloth and china cap Cool quickly and refrigerate
Bina Nusantara University 12 Reductions and Glazes A glaze is a stock that has been reduces until it will coat the back of a spoon. It is solid and rubbery when refrigerated. Glazes are used as flavorings in meat, fish, vegetable preparations –Meat Glaze – Glace de viande –Chicken Glaze – Glace de volaille –Fish Glaze – Glace de poisson
Bina Nusantara University 13 Ingredient Proportions Basic stocks –Bones – 50% –Mirepoix – 10% –Water – 100% or to cover
Bina Nusantara University 14 Sauces A thickened liquid plus seasoning, used to enhance food items Fine sauces are made by: –Using well-made stocks –Using high-quality thickening agents Adds: – Moistness – Appearance – Flavor Richness – Interest and appeal
Bina Nusantara University 15 Structure of a Sauce A liquid, the body of the sauce A thickening agent Additional seasonings or flavoring Liquids to make the “Mother Sauces”: –White stock – for velouté sauce –Brown stock – for brown sauce –Milk – for béchamel –Tomato plus stock – for tomato sauce –Clarified butter – for hollandaise
Bina Nusantara University 16 Thickening Agents Roux –White –Blond –Brown Roux Procedure –Melt fat –Add flour and mix thoroughly –Cook to the desired color Incorporating Roux into a Liquid –Cold stock into a hot roux –Room temperature into a hot stock
Bina Nusantara University 17 Roux Fat –Butter - preferred –Margarine –Animal fats –Vegetable fats and oil Flour –Bread flour Proportions –Equal parts fat and flour- A good roux is stiff not runny or pourable
Bina Nusantara University 18 Other Thickening Agents Beurre manié Whitewash Cornstarch Arrowroot Liaison - Egg yolk and cream liason Waxy maize Instant starches Vegetable purées Bread crumbs Finishing Techniques –Reduction –Straining –Deglazing –Enriching with butter or cream –Adjust seasonings
Bina Nusantara University 19 Sauce Families Mother or Leading Sauces –Béchamel sauce - Milk, white roux –Velouté - White stock, White or blond roux –Espagnole (brown) sauce - Brown stock, brown roux –Tomato sauce – Tomato plus stock, optional roux –Hollandaise - Butter, Egg Yolks
Bina Nusantara University 20 Standards of Quality for Sauces Consistency and body Flavor Appearance
Bina Nusantara University 21 Small Sauces Secondary leading white sauces –Allemande –Suprême –White wine sauce Demi-glace Half brown sauce plus half brown stock, reduced by half.
Bina Nusantara University 22 Butter Sauces Melted butter Clarified butter Brown butter Black butter Meunière butter Compound butters Beurre blanc
Bina Nusantara University 23 Compound Butters A compound butter is made by incorporating various seasonings into softened whole butter The ingredients can be combined in a blender, food processor, or mixer
Bina Nusantara University 24 Modern Sauces Broths and jus Purées Cream reductions Salsa, relishes, chutney Asian sauces Flavored oils