Definition: With a few exceptions, a sauce is a liquid + thickening agent + seasonings.
Any cook can create a good quality sauces by learning to: 1. Make good stocks 2. Use thickening agents and/or techniques properly to achieved desired taste, texture and appearance. 3. Use seasonings properly to achieve the desired flavours.
Divided into two groups Basic (mother sauces or leading sauces) Derivative (small or compound sauces) The 5 Leading sauces are: Bechemel, veloute, espagnole (brown), tomato, and hollandaise.
Most sauces are thickened by the gelatinization of starches. Common starches: flour, cornstarch, arrowroot and modified starches. Common errors when using starches: 1. Lumpy 2. Pasty or flour taste 3. Poor consistency (too think or thin) 4. Separate or break when held
Roux : Traditional way to thicken a sauce. Equal parts, by weight, of flour and fat. The heated fat coats the starch granules preventing them from lumping together
White: Is cooked only briefly. Remove when frothy, bubbly appearance begins. Used in white sauces, such as bechemel, or in dishes where little or no colour is desired.
Blonde: Cooked slightly longer than white roux, should begin to take on a little colour as the flour caramelizes. It is used in ivory coloured sauces, such as veloute, or where a richer flavour is desired.
Brown: Cooked until it develops a darker colour and nutty aroma and flavour. Used in brown sauces and dishes where a dark colour is desired. The longer a roux is cooked the less thickening power it will have, therefore while brown roux provides stronger flavour you will need more to thicken at the same rate as white, or blonde.
1. Warm or cold stock can be added to the hot roux while stirring vigorously with a whisk. 2. Room-temperature roux can be added to a hot stock while stirring vigorously with a whisk. 3. You must cook out the sauce for a period of time to remove any remaining flour taste.
Is a very fine white powder. A pure starch derived from various species of corn. Liquids thickened with cornstarch have a glossy sheen and will gel when cooled.
Must be mixed with a cool liquid before it is added into a hot one. The cool liquid separates the starch granules and allows them to begin to absorb liquid without clumping. This is called a slurry
The slurry is added to a hot liquid while stirring continuously to prevent lumping. Most starches begin to gelatinize at 60C (140F), while complete gelatinization occurs at just below the simmering point. Simmer sauces for 2 to 3 minutes
REDUCTIONSTRAINING As a sauce cook, moisture is released (steam) the remaining ingredients concentrate and thicken Reductions are used in sauces that don’t need thickening agents, they are simply allowed to reduce until the desired consistency is reached Smoothness is important. Sauces can be strained through a fine mesh. Straining removes most of the unwanted ingredients that could hinder the smoothness.
Is the process of swirling or whisking whole butter into a sauce to give it shine, flavour and richness. Compound butters can be used. Widely used to enrich and finish derivative sauces
Are the foundation for the entire classic repertoire of hot sauces. The 5 sauces are: Bechemel, Veloute, Espagnole, Hollandaise and Tomato.
Rich, creamy and absolutely smooth. Made by mixing scalded milk + White roux + Seasonings Used for vegetable, egg, gratin and pasta dishes.
Made by thickening a white stock or fish stock with roux. Veal or Chicken based. Rich, smooth and lump-free Ivory coloured and have a deep lustre.
Full-bodied and rich Made from brown stock + brown roux +mirepoix+tomato puree Most often used to create demi-glace Demi = 1:1 brown stock + Espagnole Sauce
Thick, rich and full- flavoured. Pureed sauce Made from tomatoes, vegetables and seasonings+white stock+white/blonde roux(traditional thickening, rarely used anymore)
Emulsified sauce Smooth, buttery, pale in lemon-yellow colour. Should be very rich but light in texture. Flavours of eggs, butter, vinegar and lemon.