2Nonverbal Communication ImmediacyResponsivenessSynchronyExpresses...Nonverbal Communication
3Non verbal……Most nonverbal communication is unconscious or subconsciousOccurs mostly face-to-faceThree factors in message interpretation:Verbal Impact, 7 percentVocal Impact, 38 percentFacial Impact, 55 percent
4Non-Verbal Communication – a definition… It is the way people: • Reinforce the spoken word • Replace the spoken word using their bodies to make visual signals or their voices to make oral but non-verbal signals
5Medium – NON VERBAL sign language – gestures action language – movementsobject language – pictures, clothes etc
13Body Language (Kinesics) Body language includes facial expressions, gestures, and posture and stance.To interpret facial expressions correctly, it is important to take the communication context and culture into account.People in some cultures rarely show emotion (China); Asians will smile or laugh softly when they are embarrassed.
14Effective Use of Body language Mind the body talkBe careful with the handshakeEstablish good Eye contactCommunicate at the level of the person before youWe must be ourselvesGraceful Movements and Confident posture improve the atmosphere at the workplace
161. Affect Displays Movements of the face to convey or show emotions Happy, sad, fear, anger, etc.
172. Emblems Substitutions for words Specific verbal translation EX: “OK,” “peace,” “be quiet”
183. Illustrators Accompany and literally illustrate the verbal message EX: Saying, “Let’s go” while motioning with your hands for them to go, it was “this big” while showing how big, making a circular motion while talking about a circle
19Illustrator Asking, “What time is it?” At the same time, pointing to your watch.
204. RegulatorsMonitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individualEX: nodding your head, “keep going,” “speed up”
21RegulatorsWho is sending an “I’m really listening” regulator message? How do you know?
225. Adaptors Satisfy a need & are usually unconscious 3 types: Self-adaptorsAlter-adaptorsObject-adaptors
235. Adaptors Self-adaptors: satisfy a physical need EX: scratching your head, pushing your hair out of your face
245. Adaptors Self-adaptors Alter-adaptors: body movements you make in response to your current interactionsEX: crossing your arms when someone unpleasant approaches
255. Adaptors Self-adaptors Alter-adaptors Object-adaptors: manipulation of objects; often happen when feeling hostileEX: clicking pen, chewing pencil
26Vocal Cues Paralinguistic features - no word sounds & non word characteristicsof language.Paralanguage or Para Linguistics ( systematic study of how a speaker verbalizes)
27Vocal Cues Paralinguistic features Vocal cues - all the oral aspects of soundVocal Cuesexcept words themselves,which include...pitch, rate, inflection,volume, quality, sounds& silence, pronunciation,articulation, & enunciation.
28VoicePitch variationThose who speak in monotones fail to keep listener’s attentionPeople in authority or When excited speak in high pitched voiceSpeaking SpeedFluency in language is not the same thing as the speed of speakingWe should present easy parts of message at a brisk pace and difficult, complicated parts at slower pace.In state of anxiety, urgency we speak fast and when relaxed at a comfortable speed.
29Pause Pace of speaking is also accompanied by pauses But pauses have to be at the right momentsA pause can be highly effective in emphasizing the upcoming subject and in gaining listener’s attentionHowever frequent, arbitrary pauses spoil the speech and distract listener’s attentionVery important for a speaker to carefully monitor pauses
30Non fluenciesPauses often inserted with sounds like ah, oh, uh, um, you know, OK, yawning, laughing, chuckling…Carefully and sparingly used they add fluency to speaker, give them time to breathe/ relax, make listener more alertToo frequent insertions may irritate listener
31Volume VariationLoudness of our voice should be adjusted according to size of audienceSome speakers believe only way to sound convincing is to speak louder2. Proper word stressEg: Have you met my wife before?
32Proxemics-Space Language (study of distance individuals maintain between each other while interacting and its significance)
34Proxemics-Space Language Intimate-Physical contact/touch to 1.5 feet eg with our family members, closest friends and selected peoplePersonal-18 inches to 4 feet eg normal conversations with close friends, colleagues, associates and visitorsSocial-4 to 12 feet. Used mostly for formal purposesPublic-12 feet to as far as we can see and hear
35Proxemics Defined Territoriality Personal space - bubble of space that moves with you.
36Hall’s Distance Categories Intimate distanceHall’s Distance CategoriesContact to 18 inches
38Hall’s Distance Categories Public distance12 feet or moreHall’s Distance Categories
39Hall’s Distance Categories Personal distance18 inches to 4 feetHall’s Distance Categories
40Hall’s Distance Categories Social distance4 feet to 12 feetHall’s Distance Categories
41Space (Proxemics)People in the U.S. tend to need more space than do persons of other cultures. U.S. persons back away when people stand too close. Standing too close is interpreted as being pushy or overbearing; standing too close may also be interpreted as unwelcome sexual advances.
42U. S. people need more space than do Greeks, Latin Americans, or Arabs U.S. people need more space than do Greeks, Latin Americans, or Arabs. The Japanese stand even farther away than do U.S. persons.
43Haptics Refers to communicating through the use of bodily contact When used properly, touch can create feelings of warmth and trustWhen used improperly, touch can betray trust and cause annoyanceSome cultures are very comfortable with bodily contact, others avoid it. EgIn US touching has a lot to do with hierarchyIn Thailand it is offensive to touch head
44Touch (Haptics)Touch, when used properly, may create feelings of warmth and trust; when used improperly, touch may cause annoyance and betray trust.Hierarchy is a consideration when using touch in the U.S.: people who are older or higher rank may touch those who are younger or of lower rank; equals may touch each other.
45“Don't Touch” Cultures Japan U.S. and Canada England Scandinavia Other N. European countries
46Middle Ground Countries AustraliaFranceChinaIrelandIndiaMiddle East countries
47“Touch” Cultures Latin American countries Italy Greece Spain and PortugalSome Asian countriesRussian Federation
48Location of the Touch Is Important Appropriate touch in the U.S. is limited to shaking hands in business situations - no hugs or expressions of affection.In Thailand do not touch the head.Do not touch Asians on the shoulders or even the back of the worker's chair.Avoid touching a person with the left hand in the Middle East.
49Fast, Body Language in the Workplace Several years ago, when President Carter was mediating peace talks between Egypt and Israel, Anwar Sadat frequently placed his hand on President Carter’s knee. While this subtextual message was intended as a gesture of warm friendship, the subtler message Sadat was conveying to the world was that he was President Carter’s equal.Fast, Body Language in the Workplace
50Oculesics Study of eye-contact as a form of non-verbal communication. Eye contact is the most important cueAvoiding eye contact considered as insecure, untrustworthyDirect eye contact may be misinterpreted as hostility, aggressivenessLowering eyes in China and Indonesia-sign of respect. They prefer indirect eye contact, prolonged eye contact is seen as sign of bad manners
53Gaze/Eye Contact (Oculesics) Although people in the U.S. favor direct eye contact, in other cultures, such as the Japanese, the reverse is true; they direct their gaze below the chin. In the Middle East, on the other hand, the eye contact is more intense than U.S. people are comfortable with.A prolonged gaze or stare in the U.S. is considered rude. In most cultures, men do not stare at women as this may be interpreted as sexually suggestive.
54Olfactics The study of sense of smell Someone’s smell can have a positive or negative effect on the oral message
55Smell (Olfactics)Although people of the U.S. respond negatively to body odors, Arabs are comfortable with natural body odors.Other cultures in which smell plays an important role include the Japanese and Samoans.
56Chronemics the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. The way we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool, and helps set the stage for the communication process.
57Time (Chronemics) Attitudes toward time vary from culture to culture. Countries that follow monochronic time perform only one major activity at a time (U.S., England, Switzerland, Germany).Countries that follow polychronic time work on several activities simultaneously (Latin America, the Mediterranean, the Arabs).
58Cultural Differences in Attitudes Toward Time U.S. persons are very time conscious and value punctuality. Being late for meetings is viewed as rude and insensitive behavior; tardiness also conveys that the person is not well organized.Germans and Swiss people are even more time conscious; people of Singapore and Hong Kong also value punctuality.In Algeria, on the other hand, punctuality is not widely regarded. Latin American countries have a manana attitude; people in Arab cultures have a casual attitude toward time.
59Chromatics Communication of messages through colors It is a scientific movement which explores the physical properties of colour and the effect of color on humansThe connotations colors have may be positive or negative depending on the cultureIn Us common to wear black when mourning, in India people prefer whiteIn Hong Kong red is used for happiness or luck and traditional bridal dress; in Poland brides wear whiteIn Asia people like colored shampoos, in US shampoos tend to be light colored
60Color (Chromatics) Colors have cultural variations in connotations. Black is the color of mourning in the U.S., but white is worn to funerals by the Japanese.In the U.S. white is typically worn by brides, while in India red or yellow is worn.Purple is sometimes associated with royalty, but it is the color of death in Mexico and Brazil.Red (especially red roses) is associated with romance in some cultures including the U.S.
61Ricks, Blunders in International Business United Airlines unknowingly got off on the wrong foot during its initial flights from Hong Kong. To commemorate the occasion, they handed out white carnations to the passengers. When they learned that to many Asians white flowers represent bad luck and even death, they changed to red carnations.Ricks, Blunders in International Business
63Silence Another important aspect in communication When we are silent, we are also communicating! What we communicate depends on what kind of silence it is.Mostly subject of conversation plays major role in thisThe more emotionally loaded subject is, the more silence we needSilence in group conversations are difficult to be handled for lot of people
64SilenceAlthough U.S. persons are uncomfortable with silence, people from the Middle East are quite comfortable with silence.The Japanese also like periods of silence and do not like to be hurried. Such Japanese proverbs as, “Those who know do not speak - those who speak do not know,” emphasize the value of silence over words in that culture.In Italy, Greece, and Arabian countries, on the other hand, there is very little silence.
65Sign language Visual Signs Crossed bones under a skull as a danger signalCross over a cigarette as warning against smokingLights-green or red at traffic points, railway stations, outside operation theatre of hospital, revolving light on the top of VIP vehicle/ambulanceAudio SignsDrum beats in jungles in olden timesAlarm signalsBlowing a hornBuzzer, bells
66Nonverbal SignalsVary from culture to cultureMicrosoft Photo
67What does this symbol mean to you? In the United States it is a symbol for good jobIn Germany the number oneIn Japan the number fiveIn Ghana an insultIn Malaysia the thumb is used to point rather than a finger-Atlantic Committee for the Olympic Games
68Suspiciousness is indicated by glancing away or touching your nose, eyes, or ears. Defensiveness is indicated by crossing your arms over your chest, making fisted gestures, or crossing your legs.Lack of interest or boredom is indicated by glancing repeatedly at your watch or staring at the ceiling or floor or out the window when the person is speaking.Axtell, Gestures
69Additional Guidelines for Gesturing in Various Cultures The “V” for victory gesture, holding two fingers upright, with palm and fingers faced outward, is widely used in the U.S. and many other countries. In England, however, it is a crude connotation when used with the palm in.Axtell, Gestures
70An American engineer, sent to Germany by his U. S An American engineer, sent to Germany by his U.S. company who had purchased a German firm, was working side by side with a German engineer on a piece of equipment. When the American engineer made a suggestion for improving the new machine, the German engineer followed the suggestion and asked his American counterpart whether or not he had done it correctly. The American replied by giving the U.S. American “OK” gesture, making a circle with the thumb and forefinger. The German engineer put down his tools and walked away, refusing further communication with the American engineer. The U.S. American later learned from one of the supervisors the significance of this gesture to a German: “You asshole.”Axtell, Gestures
71Interest is demonstrated by leaning forward toward the person with whom you are conversing. The posture of U.S. persons is casual, including sitting in a relaxed manner and slouching when standing (considered rude in Germany).Posture when seated varies with the culture; U.S. persons often cross their legs while seated (women at the ankle and men with the ankle on the knee).
72Most Middle Easterners would consider crossing the leg with the ankle on the knee inappropriate. Avoid showing the sole of your shoe or pointing your foot at someone in the Arab world.Follow the lead of the person of the other culture; assume the posture they assume.
73NONVERBAL POSTULATE Nonverbal gives emotional content What you say is/is not as important as how you say itNonverbal is culturally determined, yet universalWe send multiple nonverbal cues which can result in mixed messages
74Clothing & Artifacts Objectives - study of human use of clothing & other artifacts as nonverbal codes.
96Tips of effective use of non verbal communication Observe and understand the non verbal signals being sent your way on a moment –to moment basisUse eye contact
97Understand the cultural nuances of the various forms of non verbal communication. When there is a contradiction between the verbal and non verbal messages of the persons you are listening to try to assess the situation with the help of non verbal cues.
98Check context: Don't try to interpret cues isolated from other such cues, from the verbal communication, or from the physical or emotional context.Look for clusters: This is the nonverbal context itself. See if a resistance accompanies the arms being crossed to eye contact and a flat tone of voice.Consider past experience: We can more accurately interpret the behavior of people we know. For e.g. Your mother may always hugs when you come home from school and so you learn that this represent happiness in that particular situation.Practice perception checking: Recognize that you are interpreting observed behavior, not reading a mind, and check out your observation.
100Bhakti Rasa - in devotion - where we evoked the Devine Creator and find him in the deepest recesses of our being.Vatsalya Rasa - Love and comfort expression of affection at its most natural, as a child delights in all that is fun.Raudra Rasa - Beware the ferocity of the Raudra's glare-rest consumes you.Karun Rasa - Compassion and care, if pain we share.Vibhatsa Rasa - Disgust - showing a disturbing shift in the mood.Shringar Rasa - Love, beauty divinity.Adbhut Rasa - The look of wonder.Madhur Rasa - For a child there is loveliness in all that he beholds .Hasya Rasa - laughter , Bounce with us in fun.