Presentation on theme: " The Whorf hypothesis A hypothesis holding that the structure of a language affects the perceptions of reality of its speakers and thus influences their."— Presentation transcript:
The Whorf hypothesis A hypothesis holding that the structure of a language affects the perceptions of reality of its speakers and thus influences their thought patterns and worldviews.
Communications have multiple meanings interpreted by reading the situation Asian and Arabic languages are among the most high context in the world
The words provide most of the meaning Most northern European languages including German, English, and the Scandinavian languages are low context
Basic communication styles: Direct communication = comes to the point and lacks ambiguity. Formal communication = acknowledges rank, titles, and ceremony in prescribed social interaction. Nonverbal communication: Communication without words Includes array of behaviors that enhance/supplement spoken communication includes kinesics, proxemics, haptics, oculesics, and olfactics…
Kinesics: Communication through body movements: eg. facial expressions, body posture. Most Asian cultures use bowing to show respect. Caution: can be easy to misinterpret gestures.
Proxemics: Use of space to communicate: Each culture has appropriate distances for communication. The personal bubble of space may range from 9 inches to > 2 feet. North Americans prefer more distance than Latin and Arab cultures.
Haptics (or touching) Shaking hands, embracing, or kissing when greeting one another No touching (eg. Japan, US, England) Moderate touching (eg. Australia, China, India) Touching (eg. Italy, Greece) Oculesics: Communication through eye contact or gaze US and Canada: people are very comfortable and expect eye contact to be maintained China and Japan: eye contact is considered very rude & disrespectful
Olfactics: use of smells as a means of nonverbal communication U.S.: find body odor offensive Arab: consider body odors natural
Provide simultaneous translation of a foreign language Require greater linguistic skills than speaking a language or translating written documents Insure the accuracy and common understanding of agreements
Use the most common words with most common meanings Select words with few alternative meanings Follow rules of grammar strictly Speak with clear breaks between words
Avoid “sports” words or words borrowed from literature Avoid words that represent pictures Mimic the cultural flavor of nonnative speaker’s language Summarize Test your communication success
Attribution - process by which we interpret the meaning and intent of spoken words or nonverbal exchanges Attribution errors