Presentation on theme: "Social Studies Mr. Tulk Housekeeping One person needs to complete test. A bunch of you need to complete assignments. I’m going to get ZAP ready today."— Presentation transcript:
But, let’s start some work… We are going to talk about Slavery. You will have one assignment and a Quiz on this in a week or two.
Important This is not from the text book. You will need to take notes to study. So, make sure you have a notebook. Also, some elements in the next few classes will be somewhat serious.
Global trade of people We have seen how globalization has altered the lives of people. –Think about workers after the industrial revolution. –Think about outsourcing. –Think about residential schools. –Think about Social Globalization.
Now, we are going to look at something a little darker! As the Europeans moved around the globe they had little respect for the indigenous people. They were seen as commodities (something that could be bought or sold) and would do degrading or laborious work for little to no cost.
Slavery Between 1650 and 1900 nearly 28 million people were sold into slavery. Africans were put into ships and taken across the Atlantic.
What was life like on board the Brookes? Carried 400 slaves Distance between decks 1.5 metres Men in bow, boys in centre, women in stern Temperatures - 35ºC Journey lasted 40-70 days Dysentery 20 million slaves (1450-1807)
Interior of a Slave Ship, a woodcut illustration from the publication, A History of the Amistad Captives, reveals how hundreds of slaves could be held within a slave ship. Tightly packed and confined in an area with just barely enough room to sit up, slaves were known to die from a lack of breathable air.
Africans were crowded and chained cruelly aboard slave ships.
Security… Mask were used to stop talking and give the keeping something to hold on to. It also caught on brush if they tried to escape. Leg shekels stopped them from running away. The spiked leg cuffs stopped excessive movement.
The Middle Passage The Route across the Atlantic. Goods were sent to the colonies of Africa for People. Africans were sold to Americans and money and other resources were sent to Britain.
Economic Gain Most European and American Businesses made a lot of money? Why do you think it was profitable?
How were slaves prepared for auction? Washed with water Rubbed with oil Gunpowder, hot tar or rust rubbed into wounds Teeth inspected Brutal remedies, e.g. for diarrhoea Two methods of sale – auction & scramble What does this C19th poster tell us about the way slaves were treated by plantation owners?
What is a plantation? It is a farm that grows only one crop – such as tobacco, sugar or cotton. Slaves were used to do all of the hard work whilst the white owners collected the profits.
What sort of lives did they lead? Branded on face, chest or back 3-4 year-olds work in ‘trash gangs’ (weeding) 9-12 year-olds work in fields with adults Elderly worked as domestic servants No legal rights – forbidden to read, write, marry own property Flogging & other punishments How would you feel if you were branded with one of these irons?
Punishments Rebellions – rebels nailed to ground, fire applied starting at the feet and moving upwards Running away – neck ring or iron muzzle Continued running away – removal of hand or foot Flogging – one lash for each year of slave’s life How old do you think this slave was? Average life expectancy was 26. Why do you think it was so low?
An iron mask with hooks around the neck to stop slaves running away or resting. The mask also stops the slaves from eating or drinking due to a flat piece of metal which goes into the mouth. The shackles and spurs would also have made it difficult for captured slaves to run away.
This eighteen- year-old girl was whipped by her owner for refusing to have sex with him. She received 200 lashes for her actions.
"Captives... are hobbled with roughly hewn logs which chafe their limbs to open sores; sometimes a whole tree presses its weight on their bodies while their necks are penned into the natural prong formed by its branching limbs.” Written by E.J. Glave, The Slave- Trade in the Congo Basin
Slave Code… laws each US state, or colony, had defining the status of slaves and the rights of masters. The code gave slave owners near-absolute power over the right of their human property.
Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848 1.Capital crimes when punished with death. The following shall be considered as capital offences, when committed by a slave or free person of color: insurrection, or an attempt to excite it; committing a rape, or attempting it on a free white female; murder of a free white person, or murder of a slave or free person of color, or poisoning of a human being;
Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848 3. Punishment for manslaughter. And in case a verdict of manslaughter shall be found by the jury, the punishment shall be by whipping, at the discretion of the court, and branded on the cheek with the letter M.
4. Punishment of slaves for striking white persons …for the first offence suffer such punishment as the said justice or justices shall in his or their discretion think fit, not extending to life or limb; and for the second offence, suffer death: but in case any such slave shall grievously wound, maim, or bruise any white person, though it shall be only the first offence, such slave shall suffer death. Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848
10. Punishment for circulating incendiary documents...for the purpose of exciting to insurrection, conspiracy, or resistance among the slaves, Negroes, or free persons of color of this state, against their owners or the citizens of this state, the said person or persons offending against this section of this act, shall be punished with death.
11. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read. …the said free person of color or slave shall be punished by fine and whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of the court. SEC.. II. MINOR OFFENCES. Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848
14. Punishment of free persons of color for harboring slaves. All free persons of color within this state, who shall harbor, conceal, or entertain a slave or slaves who shall be charged or accused or any criminal matter, or shall be a runaway, shall, upon conviction (in addition to the penalty already provided for in said section), be subject to the same punishment as slaves are under said section of the above recited act. SEC.. II. MINOR OFFENCES.
Slave Code Examples: - Slaves could not gather in groups larger than three. - Slaves could not leave their owner's land without a written pass. - Slaves could not own guns. - It was illegal for slaves to learn how to read or write. - Slaves could not testify in court. Slave Codes - laws meant to keep slaves from running away or rebelling
The End… well not really. We will continue this discussion tomorrow… Anti-Slavery. The Underground Railway. The Civil-War. Malcolm X and Dr. King. Modern Slavery.