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Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade US Civil War Of all the contradictions in America’s history, none surpasses its toleration first of slavery and then of segregation.

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Presentation on theme: "Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade US Civil War Of all the contradictions in America’s history, none surpasses its toleration first of slavery and then of segregation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade US Civil War Of all the contradictions in America’s history, none surpasses its toleration first of slavery and then of segregation. – Stephen Ambrose

2 Middle Passage Video Clip Youtube Clip Youtube Clip Youtube Clip Youtube Clip

3 Slave Trade When When Between 1500 & 1807 Between 1500 & 1807 Why Why Cheap labor source Cheap labor source

4 430,000 imported to U.S.

5 Slave Regions in Africa Slave trade moved people along 3000 miles of Africa’s west coast to the New World Slave trade moved people along 3000 miles of Africa’s west coast to the New World Many slaves were brought from inland areas of Africa Many slaves were brought from inland areas of Africa

6 Slave Coffle

7 Middle Passage 1600’s – 1850’s Approx. 60 forts build along the west coast of Africa. Approx. 60 forts build along the west coast of Africa. Walked in slave caravans to the forts some 1000 miles away. Walked in slave caravans to the forts some 1000 miles away. Selected by the Europeans and branded. Selected by the Europeans and branded. One half survived the death march. One half survived the death march. Place in underground dungeons until they were boarded on ships. Place in underground dungeons until they were boarded on ships.

8 Middle Passage Statistics million Africans forcibly transported across the Atlantic from million Africans forcibly transported across the Atlantic from million died during the Middle Passage (10- 15%) 2 million died during the Middle Passage (10- 15%) Another 15-30% dies during the march to the coast. Another 15-30% dies during the march to the coast. For every 100 slaves that reached the New World, another 40 died in Africa or during the Middle Passage. For every 100 slaves that reached the New World, another 40 died in Africa or during the Middle Passage.

9 Middle Passage Conditions on Board the Ship Slaves chained together and crammed into spaces sometimes less than five feet high. Slaves chained together and crammed into spaces sometimes less than five feet high. Slavers packed three of four hundred Africans into the ship cargo holds. Slavers packed three of four hundred Africans into the ship cargo holds. Little ventilation, human waste, horrific odors. Unclean. Little ventilation, human waste, horrific odors. Unclean.

10 1789 Slave Ship, Brooks

11 Tight packing - belly to back, chained in twos, wrist to ankle (660+), naked. Tight packing - belly to back, chained in twos, wrist to ankle (660+), naked. Loose packing - shoulder to shoulder chained wrist to wrist or ankle to ankle. Loose packing - shoulder to shoulder chained wrist to wrist or ankle to ankle. Men and woman separated (men placed towards bow, women toward stern). Men and woman separated (men placed towards bow, women toward stern). Fed once or twice a day and brought on deck for limited times. Fed once or twice a day and brought on deck for limited times.

12 Middle Passage Journey lasted 6-8 weeks. Journey lasted 6-8 weeks. Due to high mortality rate, cargo was insured (reimbursed for drowning accidents but not for deaths from disease of sickness) Due to high mortality rate, cargo was insured (reimbursed for drowning accidents but not for deaths from disease of sickness) Common to dump your cargo for sickness or food shortages. Common to dump your cargo for sickness or food shortages. Slave mutinies on board ships were common (1 out of every 10 voyages across the Atlantic experience a revolt). Slave mutinies on board ships were common (1 out of every 10 voyages across the Atlantic experience a revolt). Covert resistance (attempted suicide, jumped overboard, refusal to eat). Covert resistance (attempted suicide, jumped overboard, refusal to eat).

13 Growth of African American Population million 13% free million 14% free million 13% free million 12% free million 11% free

14 Early 18th Century - 36,000 per year Early 18th Century - 36,000 per year During 1780’s - 80,000 per year During 1780’s - 80,000 per year Between ,000 captives/year on average. Between ,000 captives/year on average. 17th Century - slave sold in the Americas for about $150 each 17th Century - slave sold in the Americas for about $150 each Slave trade illegal in Britain in 1807, US 1808, France 1831, Spain Slave trade illegal in Britain in 1807, US 1808, France 1831, Spain Once declared illegal prices went much higher. 1850s prime field hand $ $1500 (about $18,000 in 1997 dollars). Once declared illegal prices went much higher. 1850s prime field hand $ $1500 (about $18,000 in 1997 dollars).

15 Slave Auction, Richmond VA (1861)

16 Old Slave Mart – Charleston SC Part of a complex of buildings used for the sale of slaves to plantation owners all across the American South Part of a complex of buildings used for the sale of slaves to plantation owners all across the American South Museum stands there today Museum stands there today


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