2DEFINITION Triangular Trade: Trade routes between Africa, Europe and the Americas during the Atlantic Slave Trade.
3Spain, Portugal, & England They needed slaves to work on their plantations in South America, the Caribbean, & North America
4ENGLAND At beginning, only a few slaves came to English colonies. But when tobacco, cotton & rice plantations grew in the colonies, slave trade increased.Britain was given control over much of slave trade had a monopoly
7Leg One: THE OUTWARD PASSAGE Ships left Europe loaded with guns, tools, textiles (manufactured goods)Crews with guns went ashore to capture slaves & purchase slaves from tribal leaders.Slaves were obtained by:1. Kidnapping2. Trading3. People given by chiefs as tributes (gifts)4. Chiefs sent people who were in debt5. Chiefs sent criminals through judicialprocess6. Prisoners of tribal wars also sent.
8Goree, or Slave-StickA forked branch which opens exactly to the size of a neck so the head can't pass through it.The forked branch is pierced with two holes so that an iron pin comes across the neck of the slave . . ., so that the smallest movement is sufficient to stop him and even to strangle him
11Forced ParticipationAfrican Chiefs resisted in the beginning; however, they needed weapons for defense.Europeans too powerful; therefore, any effort to resistance was unsuccessfulIf chiefs did not supply slaves, they were threatened to be taken as slaves.
13Slaves were held in prisons along the west coast of Africa. They were waiting to put on slaves ships.Those that journeyed from the interior and were not fit for the ship were left on the shores to die
15Leg Two: THE MIDDLE PASSAGE Ships sailed across Atlantic Ocean from Africa to Americas, carrying slaves & goldJourney took 5-12 weeksDISGUSTING CONDITIONSSome Africans tried to jump ship, refused to eat & rebelled.Loss of slave’s life was a loss of $ for sailors.
17LEG TWO: THE MIDDLE PASSAGE Voyage from Africa to the Americas“Loose packing”: captains took fewer slaves in hope to reduce sickness & death.“Tight packing”: captains carried as many slaves as their ship could hold many died on voyage
21Leg Three: THE HOMEWARD PASSAGE Africans sold at auctions in AmericasMoney from their sale would buy a cargo of raw materials: cotton, sugar, spices, rum, chocolate or tobacco.In Europe, converted raw materials into finished products.
23Auctions (don’t write down) There were 3 ways slaves were auctioned off:Public Auctions:- They put tar on the slaves to hide any sores and cuts- Slaves were inspected- An auction to took place and the higher bidder would get to purchase the slave.- Bids were taken as long as an inch of a candle burned.- Slaves were branded- Families were separated- They were given a European name.
27Auctions (don’t write down) A Scramble:They would take place on the docks or on the deck of the shipThere would be a fixed price per headSlave owners would go in and grab who they wanted to purchase.
29AUCTIONS American born slaves who had skills were most expensive African born slaves were less $, as they had to be “broken in”Age, sex, & skills determined costSlaves with many scars considered too rebellious3 ways: public auction, private auction, or scramble
30SLAVERY ABOLISHED IN BRITISH EMPIRE 1807 = slave trade abolished in British Empire no slaves carried from Africa in British ships.1834 = Emancipation Act: slaves under 6 yrs. old were freed; field hands over 6 worked for owners for 6 more years; house slaves worked 10 more yearsBritain gave 20 million pounds in compensation to former slave owners & slaves received nothing1838 all slaves given complete freedomSlavery in USA not abolished until 1865