Presentation on theme: "4/18 Focus: 4/18 Focus: – To meet their growing labor needs, Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in forced labor in the Americas. Do Now: Do Now: –"— Presentation transcript:
4/18 Focus: 4/18 Focus: – To meet their growing labor needs, Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in forced labor in the Americas. Do Now: Do Now: – What made the kingdoms of West Africa wealthy?
Origins of the Slave Trade Slavery historically existed in many parts of the world Spread of Islam into Africa increased slavery there – Slaves often had legal rights and some social mobility – Slavery in Africa was not hereditary; children were considered free
Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade European landowners needed a large supply of workers on American plantations
Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade Spanish attempts to use Native Americans as laborers were not successful Large death rate due to disease and overwork Bartolome de la Casas convinces Spanish to stop using Native Americans English use of Indentured Servants was expensive People who worked for a set period in exchange for passage to the Americas
Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade Europeans began buying large numbers of Africans to fill labor shortages in Americas Most slaves came from coast of West Africa – Were supplied by African rulers in exchange for guns or trade goods – Kidnapped by Europeans on slave raids
By the 1600s Portugal, Spain, France, Holland, and England were involved in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Most captured Africans were taken to colonies in the Caribbean and South America, then to North America. Only a small percentage came directly to the North American colonies
Triangular Trade Trade routes that linked the Americas, Europe, Africa, and the West Indies Sea routes formed a triangle
The Middle Passage The voyage from Africa to the Americas on slave ships Hundreds of captive Africans were crammed into tight quarters below deck in terrible conditions Millions died from disease, brutal mistreatment, and suicide on the trip
The slave ship Brookes with 482 people packed onto the decks.
Interior of a Slave Ship, a woodcut illustration from the publication, A History of the Amistad Captives, reveals how hundreds of slaves could be held within a slave ship. Tightly packed and confined in an area with just barely enough room to sit up, slaves were known to die from a lack of breathable air.
Africans were crowded and chained cruelly aboard slave ships.
Effects of the Slave Trade Millions Africans were sent to the Americas –Importation of slaves into the U.S. ended in 1807
Effects of the Slave Trade Disrupted traditional West African political structure and society –Outbreak of local wars –Loss of population –Disappearance of small countries and societies –Formation of African states dependent on the slave trade
Effects of the Slave Trade Labor of African slaves helped build the economies of American colonies People of African descent spread through the Americas and Western Europe –Led to the diffusion of African culture
Closure Where did most slaves involved in the Atlantic slave trade come from? What was the Middle Passage? What was triangular trade?
4/19 Focus:4/19 Focus: –European Expansion into the Americas had an enormous impact, resulting in many exchanges that altered the lives of people around the world. Do Now:Do Now: –What was triangular trade?
Columbian Exchange The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Effects of the Columbian Exchange Introduction of new crops from the Americas to Europe, Africa, and Asia leads to population growth Increased cultural diffusion –Europeans were influenced by Native American foods as well as African farming methods, cooking styles, and music