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Unit 5 Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991) The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two strongest powers in international.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991) The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two strongest powers in international."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5 Topic: The Cold War ( ) The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two strongest powers in international affairs. Ideologically opposed, they challenged one another in a series of confrontations known as the Cold War. The costs of this prolonged contest weakened the USSR so that it collapsed due to internal upheavals as well as American pressure. The Cold War had social and political implications in the United States. Topic: The Cold War ( ) The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two strongest powers in international affairs. Ideologically opposed, they challenged one another in a series of confrontations known as the Cold War. The costs of this prolonged contest weakened the USSR so that it collapsed due to internal upheavals as well as American pressure. The Cold War had social and political implications in the United States.

2 Chapter 2: Containment Content Statement: The United States followed a policy of containment during the cod War in response to the spread of communism. Expectations for Learning: Analyze the policy of containment the United States followed during the Cold War in response to the spread of communism. Content Statement: The United States followed a policy of containment during the cod War in response to the spread of communism. Expectations for Learning: Analyze the policy of containment the United States followed during the Cold War in response to the spread of communism.

3 Section 1: Containment Content Elaboration: The policy of containment began in the late 1940s to halt the spread of communism in Europe and Asia. It became the policy of the United States for decades.

4 Containment and the Truman Doctrine “It must be the policy of the United States, to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. We must assist free people to work out their own destinies in their own way.” the policy for the United States to provide military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey and, by extension, to any country threatened by Communism or any totalitarian ideology ***In other words--U.S. must help free states fight communism. “It must be the policy of the United States, to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. We must assist free people to work out their own destinies in their own way.” the policy for the United States to provide military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey and, by extension, to any country threatened by Communism or any totalitarian ideology ***In other words--U.S. must help free states fight communism.

5 Containment, cont. Containment: U.S. wanted to contain communism--don’t let it spread We would be willing to fight Containment: U.S. wanted to contain communism--don’t let it spread We would be willing to fight

6 Section 2: Soviet Union Expands Its Influence Content Elaboration: Following World War II, most of the eastern Europe countries had communist governments and were under Soviet control. The Chinese Revolution ushered in a communist government.

7 The Spread of Communism Following WWII, the Soviets stayed in Eastern Euopean countries after chasing Hitler back to Germany. The Soviets set up Communist governments in the following countries: Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania ***Stalin wants communist buffer ***Communism now threatened all of Europe Following WWII, the Soviets stayed in Eastern Euopean countries after chasing Hitler back to Germany. The Soviets set up Communist governments in the following countries: Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania ***Stalin wants communist buffer ***Communism now threatened all of Europe

8 The Problem of Germany A. Germany--split into 4 (US, GB, France, SU) B. Berlin also split into 4 (surrounded by SU) C. Soviet Union: 1. Eventually, they took control of East Germany and East Berlin 2. Forced their regime and communism on their new territories, even though Stalin promised free and democratic elections in these places. a. Eastern European nations b. East Germany A. Germany--split into 4 (US, GB, France, SU) B. Berlin also split into 4 (surrounded by SU) C. Soviet Union: 1. Eventually, they took control of East Germany and East Berlin 2. Forced their regime and communism on their new territories, even though Stalin promised free and democratic elections in these places. a. Eastern European nations b. East Germany

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10 The Problem of Germany, cont. A. Distrust between US and SU grew B. Collision course: freedom vs. communism C. SU: stop trading with West and start to develop atomic weapons D. This leads to: CONTAINMENT which leads to COLD WAR E. Churchill famous speech on Eastern Europe: “an iron curtain has descended across the continent” Iron Curtain: used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe the line of demarcation between Western Europe and the Soviet zone of influence A. Distrust between US and SU grew B. Collision course: freedom vs. communism C. SU: stop trading with West and start to develop atomic weapons D. This leads to: CONTAINMENT which leads to COLD WAR E. Churchill famous speech on Eastern Europe: “an iron curtain has descended across the continent” Iron Curtain: used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe the line of demarcation between Western Europe and the Soviet zone of influence

11 “Iron Curtain”

12 OGT Multiple Choice After World War II, Germany was split into 4 zones of influence. Which country DID NOT control a part of Germany? A. Spain B. Soviet Union C. Great Britain D. the United States After World War II, Germany was split into 4 zones of influence. Which country DID NOT control a part of Germany? A. Spain B. Soviet Union C. Great Britain D. the United States

13 OGT Multiple Choice (Base Test March 2005) At the end of World War II, Soviet armies liberated the countries of Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany. The occupation of these countries by the Soviet Union contributed to the development of the Cold War by A. contributing to conflict in the Middle East B. strengthening the authority of the United Nations C. bringing about the reunification of Germany D. dividing Europe into communist and non- communist spheres (Base Test March 2005) At the end of World War II, Soviet armies liberated the countries of Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany. The occupation of these countries by the Soviet Union contributed to the development of the Cold War by A. contributing to conflict in the Middle East B. strengthening the authority of the United Nations C. bringing about the reunification of Germany D. dividing Europe into communist and non- communist spheres

14 The Berlin Blockade As Marshall Plan helped, US/SU relations got worse US, France, and GB: want strong Germany SU felt threatened SU put a blockade around W. Berlin allowed nothing in; people were trapped As Marshall Plan helped, US/SU relations got worse US, France, and GB: want strong Germany SU felt threatened SU put a blockade around W. Berlin allowed nothing in; people were trapped

15 Berlin Blockade, cont. A. Berlin Airlift 1. US dropped supplies into Berlin 2. lasted 324 days ,000 total flights 4. 2 million tons of supplies 5. May 1949, Stalin cancels blockade B. Germany divided shortly after blockade concelled 1. May 12, 1949 a. German Federated Republic 2. Oct., 1949 a. German Democratic Republic A. Berlin Airlift 1. US dropped supplies into Berlin 2. lasted 324 days ,000 total flights 4. 2 million tons of supplies 5. May 1949, Stalin cancels blockade B. Germany divided shortly after blockade concelled 1. May 12, 1949 a. German Federated Republic 2. Oct., 1949 a. German Democratic Republic

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17 OGT Multiple Choice (2005 Practice Test) After World War II, Germany was divided into two nations, East Germany and West Germany. Though they remained politically divided for over forty years, the people of these two nations shared a common cultural heritage. Which action was influenced by this cultural influence? A. West Germany joined NATO in 1955 B. East Germany joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955 C. The people of East Germany supported reunification with West Germany D. The people of West Germany supported withdrawing from the United Nations (2005 Practice Test) After World War II, Germany was divided into two nations, East Germany and West Germany. Though they remained politically divided for over forty years, the people of these two nations shared a common cultural heritage. Which action was influenced by this cultural influence? A. West Germany joined NATO in 1955 B. East Germany joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955 C. The people of East Germany supported reunification with West Germany D. The people of West Germany supported withdrawing from the United Nations

18 OGT Extended Response The Berlin Blockade was an event that helped to start the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. (4 points) What is a Cold War? (1 point) Why did the Soviet Union want to deny freedom to Berlin? (1 point) What were the results of the Berlin Blockade (2 points) The Berlin Blockade was an event that helped to start the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. (4 points) What is a Cold War? (1 point) Why did the Soviet Union want to deny freedom to Berlin? (1 point) What were the results of the Berlin Blockade (2 points)

19 Section 3: The Marshall Plan and NATO/Warsaw Pact Content Elaboration: In Europe, the Marshall Plan and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were efforts to contain communism. In Asia, the policy of containment was the basis for U.S. involvement in the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

20 Marshall Plan A. Europe is in shambles B. We did NOT want Communism to spread Q: How could we stop it from spreading? A: Improve conditions in Europe! How? The Marshall Plan!: a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II A. Europe is in shambles B. We did NOT want Communism to spread Q: How could we stop it from spreading? A: Improve conditions in Europe! How? The Marshall Plan!: a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II

21 Marshall Plan, cont. A. The plan: give aid to European countries 1. passed April 3, Gave $5.3 billion to Europe for recovery 3. U.S. wants to save West Europe 4. This plan worked a. mostly helped GB, France, and W. Ger. b. 25% more output A. The plan: give aid to European countries 1. passed April 3, Gave $5.3 billion to Europe for recovery 3. U.S. wants to save West Europe 4. This plan worked a. mostly helped GB, France, and W. Ger. b. 25% more output

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23 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States Marshall Plan following World War II was an effort to provide A. military aid to its former enemies B. military aid to its allies C. economic aid to starving people in Africa D. economic aid to war-torn Europe (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States Marshall Plan following World War II was an effort to provide A. military aid to its former enemies B. military aid to its allies C. economic aid to starving people in Africa D. economic aid to war-torn Europe

24 OGT Short Answer The Marshall Plan was a plan for European recovery after World War II. How did the Marshall Plan prove that the foreign policy of the United States was changing? (2 points)

25 NATO and Warsaw Pact A.Throughout 40’s and 50’s Cold War intensified 1. Aug = SU detonates atomic bomb 2. End of 1949 = China becomes Communist Communist leader is Mao Zedong. A.Throughout 40’s and 50’s Cold War intensified 1. Aug = SU detonates atomic bomb 2. End of 1949 = China becomes Communist Communist leader is Mao Zedong.

26 2 Alliances soon formed: NATO: an military alliance of twenty-eight North American and European countries. The role of the organization is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means. Warsaw Pact: an organization formed 1955 comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective defense under a joint military command 2 Alliances soon formed: NATO: an military alliance of twenty-eight North American and European countries. The role of the organization is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means. Warsaw Pact: an organization formed 1955 comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective defense under a joint military command

27 NATO/Warsaw Pact, cont. B. The creation of NATO (MAP page 718) 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization a. U.S. + Canada join with 12 W. Eur. countries 2. Later = Greece, Turkey, and W. Germany 3. Signed April 4, 1949 C. Alliance 1. Attack on one = attack on all 2. Senate passes (82-13) 1st Peacetime alliance 3. DDE = commander of NATO B. The creation of NATO (MAP page 718) 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization a. U.S. + Canada join with 12 W. Eur. countries 2. Later = Greece, Turkey, and W. Germany 3. Signed April 4, 1949 C. Alliance 1. Attack on one = attack on all 2. Senate passes (82-13) 1st Peacetime alliance 3. DDE = commander of NATO

28 NATO/Warsaw Pact, cont. D. Warsaw Pact Alliance formed by SU 3. Countered NATO 4. This increased fears during the Cold War D. Warsaw Pact Alliance formed by SU 3. Countered NATO 4. This increased fears during the Cold War

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31 Korea and Vietnam The containment policy led to “hot” wars in Korea and Vietnam. More on these conflicts later in the unit! The containment policy led to “hot” wars in Korea and Vietnam. More on these conflicts later in the unit!

32 OGT Multiple Choice The United States joined with Canada and 12 Western European countries to form our first peacetime alliance. This organization was called: A. League of Nations B. United Nations C. OPEC D. NATO The United States joined with Canada and 12 Western European countries to form our first peacetime alliance. This organization was called: A. League of Nations B. United Nations C. OPEC D. NATO

33 OGT Multiple Choice When China became a Communist country in 1949, who was their leader? A. Syngman Rhee B. Mao Zedong C. Joseph Stalin D. Chang Kai-shek When China became a Communist country in 1949, who was their leader? A. Syngman Rhee B. Mao Zedong C. Joseph Stalin D. Chang Kai-shek

34 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) In the years following World War II there emerged the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact nations. These are examples of A. regional economic cooperative efforts B. environmental impact studies C. military alliance systems D. international tribunals (Practice Test Booklet 2005) In the years following World War II there emerged the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact nations. These are examples of A. regional economic cooperative efforts B. environmental impact studies C. military alliance systems D. international tribunals


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