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NOUN CLAUSES Grammar 3 Lecture 2 L. Margo Arnold, presenter, By: Eman Alkatheery.

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Presentation on theme: "NOUN CLAUSES Grammar 3 Lecture 2 L. Margo Arnold, presenter, By: Eman Alkatheery."— Presentation transcript:

1 NOUN CLAUSES Grammar 3 Lecture 2 L. Margo Arnold, presenter, By: Eman Alkatheery

2 Noun Clauses A noun clause is a dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence. It is used as a subject, an object of a verb, an object of a preposition, and a complement (table 7.1. – p. 296). Never separate a noun clause from the main clause with commas or other punctuation marks since noun clauses are part of main clauses. Eman Alkatheery

3 Noun Clauses Noun clauses come at the beginning of a sentence or after certain nouns, adjectives, and verbs such as: NoteIllustrateExplainConcludeAdd ExclaimBelieveAskThinkShow WishSayMentionHopeFind EstimateIndicateRemarkTell Eman Alkatheery

4 Types of Noun Clauses 1. That clauses. It begins with (that). Example: She thought that the exam was cancelled. 2. Subjunctive clauses. It begins with (that). However, the verb of the noun clause is in the subjunctive mode. Example: It is urgent that Ali submit the report today. Eman Alkatheery

5 Types of Noun Clauses 3. If/Whether clauses. It begins with (if or whether). Example: The teacher wants to know if the students understood the formula. 4. WH-Question clauses. It begins with a question word e.g. where, what, who, when, or how. Example: I don’t know who she is. Eman Alkatheery

6 Noun Clauses Examples: Subject That Ahmad can fly is unbelievable. The story is unbelievable. Object of a verb People once believed that the world was flat. They believed the story. Eman Alkatheery

7 Noun Clauses Examples: Object of a preposition I listened to what he said. I listened to the story. Complement A major concern is how fast these changes are happening. A major concern is the fast changes. Practice 1, p. 297 Eman Alkatheery

8 Noun Clauses PART ONE: CLAUSES WITH THAT; REPORTED SPEECH (PP. 295 – 303) Eman Alkatheery

9 Clauses with that A that clause can appear in different places: 1. After the independent clause verb: The student hopes that his excuse will be accepted. 2. After some adjectives: Example: glad, sad, happy, worried, sorry, …etc The class was happy that the teacher cancelled the exam. Eman Alkatheery

10 Clauses with that 3. After some nouns: Example: idea, theory, opinion, claim, fact, etc. People didn’t believe the theory that the Earth revolves around the sun. 4. At the beginning of a sentence: That Huda came late was predictable. Eman Alkatheery

11 Clauses with that Examples: I think that she is a good writer. That Ahmad cheated in the exam was surprising. That Nawal needs a job is obvious. It is obvious that Nawal needs a job. Eman Alkatheery

12 Clauses with that Examples: That Sarah has no friends is a pity. The teacher mentioned that China has a strong economy. I am glad that my sister passed the math exam. It did not surprise me that Huda was late. Eman Alkatheery

13 Clauses with that Examples: I believe that motherhood is a big responsibility. That the sun rises from the east is a fact. The fact that the Earth revolves around the sun was proven. Eman Alkatheery

14 Quotations vs. Reported Speech Quotations are the exact words that a person has used to state something. They appear between quotation marks. In addition, quotations are preceded or followed by a comma.(Table 7.2., p. 299). We begin quotations with verbs such as say, tell, ask, wonder, remarked, stated, etc. Example: Susan said, “Chris is at work.” “Chris is at work,” Susan said. Eman Alkatheery

15 Quotations vs. Reported Speech Quoting more than one sentence: “My brother is a student. He studies at KSU,” she said. “My brother is a student,” she said. “He studies at KSU.” Quoting a question or an exclamation: She asked, ”When will you be here?” ”When will you be here?” she asked. She said, “Watch out!” Eman Alkatheery

16 Quotations vs. Reported Speech Reported speech involves paraphrasing. You tell the same ideas but with different words. There is no need for commas or quotation marks. Also, some changes are required in reported speech. (Table 7.2., p. 299). Example: Susan said that Chris was at work.* Susan said Chris was at work. * That is optional in the middle of this sentence Eman Alkatheery

17 Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech If the verb in the main (independent) clause is in the past, the verb in the noun clause (dependent clause) is changed to one of the past tenses (Table 7.3., p. 299) Quoted speechreported speech “ I watch TV everyday.” She said she watched TV everyday. Eman Alkatheery

18 Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech Reported SpeechQuoted Speech Sarah said she was watching TV.“I am watching TV “. She mentioned that Chris was at work.“Chris is at work”. She added she hadn’t finished yet.“I haven’t finished yet”. Eman Alkatheery

19 Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech Reported SpeechQuoted Speech He said he had watched TV.“ I have watched TV.” She told me that she had gone home.“ I went home”. Ali remarked that he was going to exercise.“I am going to exercise”. Eman Alkatheery

20 Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech Exceptions: In reporting technical or scientific facts, the present is generally used. “The world is round” The teacher said the world is round. Eman Alkatheery

21 Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech Exceptions: If the verb in the main clause is in the present or the future, the noun clause is not changed. “ I watch TV every day”. She says she watches TV every day. She has said that she watches TV every day. She will say that she watches TV every day. Eman Alkatheery

22 Changes in Modal Auxiliaries with Reported Speech In reported speech, some modal auxiliaries are changed to the past. (Table 7.4, p. 300) She said that Ann could help Chris.“Ann can help Chris.” She added John might help.“John may help.” She said that James would help Chris.“James will help Chris.” Eman Alkatheery

23 Changes in Modal Auxiliaries with Reported Speech She said that Ann had to help Chris.“ Ann must help Chris.” Joe said that Susan must be tired.“Susan must be tired.” Must: When must expresses necessity, you change it to the past. However, when it expresses probability, it does not change. Eman Alkatheery

24 Changes in Modal Auxiliaries with Reported Speech If the modal auxiliary is already in the past, no changes are required. Practice 2, p. 300 He said Alex could help.‘Alex could help.” He said Alex would help.‘Alex would help.” He said Alex should help.‘Alex should help.” He said Alex ought to help.‘Alex ought to help.” He said Alex could have helped.“Alex could have helped.” Eman Alkatheery

25 Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech You also have to change pronouns and demonstratives in reported speech. (Table 7.5, p. 301). “ I need your help.” She said she needed my help. “They need my help.” She said that they needed her help. “These pages need to be corrected.” She said that those pages needed to be corrected. Eman Alkatheery

26 Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech “I am a computer programmer in San Francisco. I grew up in India. I helped design several web sites. My hobbies are reading and swimming.” Molly said that she was a computer designer in San Francisco, but she had grown up in India. She had helped design several web sites. She added that her hobbies were reading and swimming. Eman Alkatheery

27 Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech Time and place expressions may also change. (Table 7.5, p. 301) “We need the work now.” She said that they needed the work then. “We will need the other pages tomorrow.” She added that they would need the other pages the following day. Eman Alkatheery

28 Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech Directional and time-related verbs may also change according to when and where the reported speech occurs. (Table 7.5, p. 301) “You should bring them here when you come to work.” He said that I should take them there when I went to work. Eman Alkatheery

29 Changing Commands to Reported Speech To change a direct command to a reported statement, an appropriate subject and modal must be added e.g. should. (Table 7.6, p. 301). My manager told me that I should finish my report by 10. “Finish your report by 10.” My manager said that I should be sure to proofread it. “Be sure to proofread it.” The teacher added that I should make ten copies. “Make ten copies.” Eman Alkatheery

30 Changing Commands to Reported Speech Other modals can be used in reported commands depending on the strength of the command e,g. must, have to, need to, …etc. Practice 3 – p. 302 My mother said that I should stop it. “Stop it!” My mother said that I had to clean my room. “Clean your room.” Dad told me that I had to limit my time on the internet. “Limit your time on the internet.” Eman Alkatheery

31 Noun Clauses PART TWO: CLAUSES WITH EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (PP. 304 – 310) Eman Alkatheery

32 Clauses with Embedded Questions Information questions can be used as noun clauses. Questions words such as what, when, why, … are used to begin such clauses. The subject precedes the verb like in statements. Auxiliary verbs added to form the questions are not used in forming noun clauses. (Table 7.7, p. 305)

33 Clauses with Embedded Questions I don’t know where she lives. Where does she live? I couldn’t hear what he said. What did he say? She wants to know how much I’ll make. How much will you make? She wondered how old Salma is. How old is Salma? Eman Alkatheery

34 Clauses with Embedded Questions Do you know what time it is?What time is it? I don’t know what time it is. What time is it? Do you remember where the lecture is? Where is the lecture? I am not sure where the lecture is. Where is the lecture? Eman Alkatheery

35 Clauses with Embedded Questions Practice 1, p. 306 What she said surprised me.What did she say? Do you know when they arrive? When do they arrive? Do you know whose pen this is? Whose pen is this? Can you tell me which one you want? Which one do you want? Eman Alkatheery

36 Clauses with Embedded Questions Exercise: Combine the two clauses into one sentence using a noun clause: 1. Where is the bank? Could you tell me 2. What time does the next bus come? Can you tell me 3. Where did Sara go last night? Do you know 4. Where is the nearest super market? Do you know 5. How do you make a noun clause? Could you explain Eman Alkatheery

37 Clauses with Embedded Questions Answers: 1. Could you tell me where the bank is? 2. Can you tell me what time the next bus comes? 3. Do you know where Sara went last night? 4. Do you know where the nearest super market is? 5. Could you explain how you make a noun clause? Eman Alkatheery

38 Clauses with Embedded Questions P. 305 table 7.7 Why did you leave your last job? She asked me why I had left my last job. The tense is changed because it is a reported question and the verb of the main clause is in the past. Eman Alkatheery

39 Clauses with if / whether Yes/no questions can be used as noun clauses. If / whether are used to begin such clauses. The subject must come before the verb. Auxiliary verbs added to form the questions are not used in forming noun clauses. Eman Alkatheery

40 Clauses with if / whether If is used in both conversational and formal English. It implies that there is a yes/no answer. Whether is used in formal English. It implies choice among alternatives. (Table 7.8, p. 306) Eman Alkatheery

41 Clauses with if / whether I want to know if they have any job openings. Do they have any job openings? Do you know if the manager is here now? Is the manager here now? I don’t know if she will come. Will she come? I asked if Hassan needed help.* Does Hassan need help? *It is a reported question. The tense is changed to the past Eman Alkatheery

42 Clauses with if / whether Practice 2, p. 307 I want to know whether Nada should talk to the manager (or not). Should Nada talk to the manager? I would like to know whether she needs an appointment (or not). Does she need an appointment? Do you know whether she will come (or not) ? Will she come? I wonder whether (or not) he needs help. Does he need help? Eman Alkatheery

43 Noun Clauses PART THREE: STATEMENTS AND REQUESTS OF URGENCY (PP. 311– 316) PART THREE: STATEMENTS AND REQUESTS OF URGENCY (PP. 311– 316) Eman Alkatheery

44 Statement of urgency with that The subjunctive mood is used to replace commands. It is softer and less direct. The subjunctive form is the simple form of the verb, and modals are not used. (Table 7.9., p. 312) Eman Alkatheery

45 Statement of urgency with that You put that, the subject, and the subjunctive after these adjectives (adjectives of urgency): Advisable Imperative Important Vital Best Urgent Crucial Necessary Desirable Essential If the statement is negative, the word (not) comes before the verb Eman Alkatheery

46 Statement of urgency with that Practice 1, p. 312 It is crucial that you be on time.Be on time! It is important that you not arrive late. Don’t arrive late! It is urgent that they discuss the matter. Discuss the matter! It is vital that she make a decision immediately. Make a decision immediately! Eman Alkatheery

47 Statement of urgency with that Compare: It is predictable that Noura will come late. It is obvious that Ali needs a job. It is urgent that Ali get a job. It is important that Ahmad study for the exam. Eman Alkatheery

48 Statement of urgency with that Exercise: Change the following commands into statements of urgency by using the given adjectives. Crucial, important, urgent “ Study for the exam, Ahmad.” “Arrange the files alphabetically.” “Wash your car.” Eman Alkatheery

49 Urgent Requests with that The subjunctive is also used with noun clauses with that after certain verbs of requests. This form of request is formal and polite. The subjunctive form is the simple form of the verb, and modals are not used. Eman Alkatheery

50 Urgent Requests with that You put that, the subject, and the subjunctive after these verbs: (Table 7.10., p. 313) Advise* ask* command* require* desire propose recommend suggest request urge* demand insist *They can be followed by both subjunctives and infinitives. Eman Alkatheery

51 Urgent Requests with that Practice 2, p. 313 The teacher demanded that students hand in the papers. Hand in the papers. I advise that she stay home with her children. Stay home with your children. The boss recommends that we be aware of problems. Be aware of the problems. The manager insists that workers be on time. Be on time. Eman Alkatheery

52 Urgent Requests with that My mother insisted that I not go to the party. Don’t go to the party. The doctor insists that every child get eight hours of sleep at night. Get eight hours of sleep at night. The union urged that the company forbid all forms of discrimination. Forbid all forms of discrimination. The union recommended that the company give one-month vacation. Give one-month vacation. Eman Alkatheery

53 Urgent Requests with that We asked the manager to attend the meeting. Attend the meeting. The doctor advised every child to get eight hours of sleep at night. Get eight hours of sleep at night. The union urged the company to forbid all forms of discrimination. Forbid all forms of discrimination. The union commanded the company to give one-month vacation. Give one-month vacation. * The infinitive is used as a form of reduction to the noun clause. It is used in informal English after these verbs: command, advise, ask, require, and urge. Eman Alkatheery

54 Urgent Requests with that Exercise: Change the following commands into urgent requests by using the given verbs. demand, suggest, urge “Study for the exam, Ahmad.” “Arrange the files alphabetically.” “Wash your car.” Eman Alkatheery

55 Noun Clauses PART FOUR: CLAUSES AS SUBJECTS OF SENTENCES (PP. 316– 321) Eman Alkatheery

56 Clauses as subjects of sentences. A noun clause may be used as the subject of a sentence. It must begin with a connecting word (That, what, whether, if), and take a singular verb. (table 7.11, p. 317) That he is a troublemaker is certain. What he is known for is his mistakes. Eman Alkatheery

57 Clauses as subjects of sentences. Whether they need the car seems uncertain. Where I will be working concerns me because I have no car. What they do makes them popular. That my children eat well is important to me. Eman Alkatheery

58 Clauses as subjects of sentences. What she is doing bothers me. Whether the manager decided to give me a raise or not worries me. That Harry is not happy was obvious. Practice 1, p. 317 Eman Alkatheery

59 Anticipatory it + Clauses with that In some cases a noun clause ( the subject) comes at the end of the sentence, and (Anticipatory it ) comes at the beginning of the sentence. Anticipatory it + noun clause is common in conversational English. (table 7.12., p. 318) Example: That Salwa missed the exam is strange. It is strange that Salwa missed the exam. Eman Alkatheery

60 Anticipatory it + Clauses with that Example: It is strange that Salwa missed the exam. Remember: Anticipatory it + adjectives of urgency are always followed by verbs in the subjunctive mood. It is crucial that you be on time. Eman Alkatheery

61 Anticipatory it + Clauses with that That Nawal needs a job is obvious. It is obvious that Nawal needs a job. That Huda comes late is predictable. It is predictable that Huda comes late. That Ali be on time is crucial. It is crucial that Ali be on time. Practice 3, p. 319 Eman Alkatheery

62 Noun Clauses PART FIVE: REDUCTION OF NOUN CLAUSES TO INFINITIVE PHRASES (PP. 321– 310) PART FIVE: REDUCTION OF NOUN CLAUSES TO INFINITIVE PHRASES (PP. 321– 310) Eman Alkatheery

63 Reduction of Indirect Commands Commands can be reduced to infinitive phrases in reported speech. (table 7.14., p. 325). The verb (say) does not take a noun or pronoun as its object before the noun clause or the infinitive phrase. However, the verb (tell) must take a noun or a pronoun as its object before the noun clause or the infinitive phrase. Some verbs such as advise, urge, command, …. Follow the same pattern of verb (tell). Eman Alkatheery

64 Reduction of Indirect Commands Infinitive phraseReported commandcommand She said to stop it.She said that we should stop it. Stop it! She told us to finish the work. She told us that we should finish the work. Finish the work. She told us to do a good job. She told us that we should do a good job. Do a good job. Eman Alkatheery

65 Reduction of Requests for Action Yes / no questions are sometimes used as requests of action. (table 7.15., p. 325) Could you help me? If they are turned into noun clauses, they can be reduced into infinitive phrases. The object must be used with the infinitive phrase. She asked (me) if I could help her. She asked me to help her. Eman Alkatheery

66 Reduction of requests of Action Infinitive phrase Reported speech Request of action She asked me to help her. She asked (me) if I could help her. Could you help me? She asked me to lend her 5$. She asked (me) if I could lend her 5$. Could you lend me 5$? Eman Alkatheery

67 Reduction of Requests for Permission Yes / no questions are sometimes used as requests for permission. (table 7.15., p. 325) Could I take your pen? If they are turned into noun clauses, they can be reduced into infinitive phrases. The object is not used with the infinitive phrase. She asked (me) if she could take my pen. She asked to take my pen. Eman Alkatheery

68 Reduction of Requests for Permission Infinitive phrase Reported speech Request of action She asked to leave early. Sarah asked (me) if she could leave early. Can I leave early? She asked to turn on the light. Sarah asked (me) if she could turn on the light. Could I turn on the light? Eman Alkatheery

69 Reduction of Requests for Permission Compare: She asked to take the pen. Can I take the pen? (Permission) She asked me to take the pen. Would you take the pen? (action) Eman Alkatheery

70 Reduction of Embedded questions Embedded yes/ no questions with auxiliaries can be reduced into infinitive phrases. (table 7.16, p.326) Should I come early? Jay asked if he should come early. In reduced Yes/no questions, whether (or not) is always used with infinitive phrases. The speaker and the subject of the question must be the same. Jay asked whether to come early. Eman Alkatheery

71 Reduction of Embedded questions Compare: Should I submit the paper on Tuesday? Should Sarah submit the paper on Tuesday? Ali Asked if he should submit the paper on Tuesday. Ali Asked if Sarah should submit the paper on Tuesday. Ali asked whether to submit the paper on Tuesday. The second one can’t be turned into an infinitive phrase because the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the noun clause. Eman Alkatheery

72 Reduction of Embedded questions Embedded Wh-questions can be reduced into infinitive phrases. (table 7.16, p.326) (Practice 4 & 5, p. 326) Which pages should I read? Jay asked (her) which pages he should read. In reduced Wh-questions, information question words (or wh-words) such as where, when, what, … are always used with infinitive phrases. The speaker and the subject of the question must be the same. Jay asked (her) which pages to read. Eman Alkatheery

73 Reduction of Embedded questions Compare: When am I going to Egypt? When are they going to Egypt? Ali Asked when he is going to Egypt. Ali Asked when they are going to Egypt. Ali asked when to go to Egypt. The second one can’t be turned into an infinitive phrase because the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the noun clause. Eman Alkatheery

74 Reduction of Statements of Urgency Statements of urgency can be reduced into infinitive phrases. (table 7.13, p. 323) It is important that she call. It is important for her to call. It is necessary that I eat well. It is necessary for me to eat well. It was essential that he have the money It was essential for him to have the money. Eman Alkatheery

75 Reduction of Urgent Requests Some urgent requests can be used with infinitive phrases. Only the following verbs of requests can be used with infinitive phrases (table 7.13, p. 323) Practice 1, p. 323 advise, urge, command, require, ask I will advise that he call right away. I will advise him to call right away. He urged that I see a doctor. He urged me to see a doctor. Eman Alkatheery

76 Reduction of Urgent Requests * The infinitive is used as a form of reduction to the noun clause. It is used in informal English after these verbs: command, advise, ask, require, and urge. Attend the meeting. We asked that the manager attend the meeting. We asked the manager to attend the meeting. Get eight hours of sleep at night. The doctor advised that every child get eight hours of sleep at night. The doctor advised every child to get eight hours of sleep at night. Eman Alkatheery

77 Reduction of Urgent Requests Forbid all forms of discrimination. The union urged that the company forbid all forms of discrimination. The union urged the company to forbid all forms of discrimination. Give one-month vacation. The union commanded that the company give one-month vacation. The union commanded the company to give one-month vacation. Eman Alkatheery


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