2 NC with whether or ifWe know that to change a wh-question to a noun clause, we use the wh-word:- I don’t know + Where is George? =- I don’t know where George is.To change a yes/no-question to a noun clause, use the whether or if:- I don’t know + Will she come? =- I don’t know whether she will come.- I don’t know if she will come.George wonders + Does Fred know how to cook? =George wonders if Fred knows how to cook.
3 Using “or not” Whether Fred can get a better job or not is not certain Can you tell me if Fred is here or not?The question is whether or not other boys will try the same thing.The students don't know whether or not they can stay awake during the lecture.
4 NC with thatThere are some common verbs that are followed directly by a that- clause like:Agree/believe/decide/discover/explain/feel/find out / forget /hear /hope /know /learn /notice /promise /read /remember /say /tell /think /understand.The word (that) is usually omitted in speaking but kept in formal writing.Examples,- I know that the class is full.- Anyone who says that English teachers are boring will be punished.- They now understand that they should not cheat on a test.
5 With adjectivesThere are some common adjectives that are followed by a that- clause.1- When adjectives describe the subject refering to a person like:Ali is proud that he won the game.Adjectives like: afraid / angry/ confident/ glad/ happy/ sorry/ surprised/ worried2- When adjectives describe (it) in sentences like:It is good that the exam was canceled.Adjectives like: amazing / interesting/ lucky/ nice / possible/ surprising/ true/ wonderful
6 That- clause as a subject It is possible but uncommon to use that- clause as the subject of the sentence.That he believes his own story is remarkable.Notice that the word (that) here shouldn’t be omitted.Be aware that starting a sentence with a noun clause starting That is acceptable, but it grates on lots of people's ears. As a result, many writers prefer to precede it with "The fact…".)The fact that he believes his own story is remarkable.
7 Using –ever wordsEnglish teachers dispense wisdom to whoever will listen. This noun clause is the object of a preposition.-ever words are used to give the idea of “any”So, the sentence could mean=English teachers dispense wisdom to anyone will listen.