Presentation on theme: "Medieval/Middle Ages and Renaissance Music. Your question to me…. “Keith, why don’t we spend more time on music from the Medieval/Middle Ages and the."— Presentation transcript:
Medieval/Middle Ages and Renaissance Music
Your question to me…. “Keith, why don’t we spend more time on music from the Medieval/Middle Ages and the Renaissance?”
The most important concept! Sacred vs. Secular
Medieval vs. Renaissance
Easy dates to remember…. Medieval/Middle Ages c. 450-1450 Renaissance c. 1450-1650
Just any old church door?
October 31, 1517 Martin Luther 95 Theses Women (castrati) Vernacular
The Culture of the Medieval/ Middle Ages Almost all patronage (sponsorship) from the church Most surviving music is sacred Later Middle Ages: cities, cathedrals, art, and literature 450 1450
Which are you?
Two Types of Chant Syllabic: One note (or sometimes two) note(s) per syllable. Dies Irae Day of wrath! O day of mourning! See fulfilled the prophets' warning, Heaven and earth in ashes burning!
Two Types of Chant Melismatic: multiple notes per syllable. Whitsunday Mass, “Alleluia, emitte spirit”
Quick comparison… Dies Irae Mozart (1791) Mozart (1791 Verdi (1900) (3:50) Essay question: What are the differences between these three Dies Irae compositions? (And… we’ll here at least two more! )
Naxos CD#1, track 1 De Profundis “…From the depths, I cry to Thee, Lord…” Psalm 130
Listen for… 1. Sacred Latin text 2. Male voices 3. No harmony* 4. No rhythmic*interest 5. No dynamic* variation 6. Melismatic* writing 7. Confined vocal range 8. A capella*
Life in the Medieval/Middle Ages Cloister Cloister Monastery (men) Convent (women)
The place of women… Where are the women in “classical” music? How many times will we ask that question? Any early feminists?
Hildegard of Bingen
The Music of Hildegard of Bingen The Music of Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179) 1150 founded convent in Germany Known for miracles and prophecies Three collections of visions & prophecies in manuscript Composed religious poetry with music (Morality play) The Play of the Virtues (Ordo virtutum)
Vision: The Life of Hildegard
Naxos CD1, Track #2 Alleluia! O virga mediatrix, sancta viscera tua mortem superaverunt et venter tuus omnes creaturas illuminavit in pulcro flore de suavissima integritate clausi pudoris tui orto. Alleluia! O branch, mediator, your holy body overcame death, and your womb illuminated all creatures with the beautiful flower born from the sweetest integrity of your chaste honor.
Listen for… 1. Sacred Latin text, but… 2. Male voices 3. No harmony* 4. No rhythmic*interest 5. No dynamic* variation 6. Melismatic* and Syllabic* writing 7. Extended vocal range 8. A capella* 9. Various sections between solo* and tutti*
Which leads us to….. Opera* The Coronation of Poppea Claudio Monteverdi Voice assignments (including countertenors/castrati) Warning! (Just the first of many.)
The Rise of Polyphony*: The Notre Dame School Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris. Notated rhythm* and pitch. Multiple “voices”
Motets* Sacred*, usually in Latin Any number of voices* Accompanied * Spem in alium I have never put my hope in any other but in you, O God of Israel who can show both anger and graciousness, and who absolves all the sins of suffering man Lord God, Creator of Heaven and Earth be mindful of our humiliation
Madrigals* Secular* A cappella* Vernacular* Word painting* Fair Phyllis Fair Phyllis I saw sitting all alone Feeding her flock near to the mountain side. The shepherds knew not, they knew not whither she was gone, But after her lover Amyntas hied (sic), Up and down he wandered whilst she was missing; When he found her, O then they fell a-kissing.
Early Instrumental Music Central role in art music reserved for vocal music. Instrumental music mostly improvised.* Soft (piano* or bas) or loud (forte* or haut) instruments. Categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor).
Early Instrumental Music Mandolin Lute Vielle
Early Instrumental Music Dulcimer Psaltery
Medieval Organs Small instruments (Portative) Small instruments (Portative) Sound clip Large instruments (Positive) Large instruments (Positive)
Naxos CD1, Track #3 Gloria from Missa Papae Marcelli Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 1525-94
Sacred Latin Text Gloria in excelsis Deo. Et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex caelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite, Iesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus Sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. Tu solus Altissimus, Iesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu, in gloria Dei Patris. Amen. Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace, good will towards men. We praise thee, we bless thee, we worship thee, we glorify thee, we give thanks to thee for thy great glory, O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father Almighty. O Lord, the only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy upon us. For thou only art holy; thou only art the Lord; thou only art most high, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, in the glory of God the Father. Amen.
Listen for… 1. Sacred* Latin text 2. Male voices (treble/castrato*?!) 3. Intricate harmonies* 4. Detailed rhythm* 5. Wide dynamic* variations 6. Melismatic* and Syllabic* writing 7. Extended vocal range 8. A capella* 9. Various sections between solo* and tutti*
Naxos CD2, Track #4 Pavane* William Byrd (1543-1623)
Viol* fast facts viola da gamba and lute viola da gamba and lute bowed, fretted, stringed musical instruments developed in the 13 th century most popular and important instrument through the 15 th century