Presentation on theme: "Music & Society In Medieval Tuscany. Music in the Church Cathedrals helped indoctrinate the public & reinforced the structure of power. Cruciform."— Presentation transcript:
Music & Society In Medieval Tuscany
Music in the Church Cathedrals helped indoctrinate the public & reinforced the structure of power. Cruciform shape Open, ethereal spaces w/ high windows Altar faced East, towards Jerusalem Visual art was stylized and didactic Processions & spectacle highlighted meaning Music helped get the message out
People “heard” Mass Rood screen made a clear view impossible Rood screen made a clear view impossible Public only took communion a few times a year (Easter, Christmas, etc.) Public only took communion a few times a year (Easter, Christmas, etc.) Public did not participate in the Mass through responses Public did not participate in the Mass through responses Public clearly separated from clergy Public clearly separated from clergy Public did not understand Latin Public did not understand Latin
Parts of the Cathedral Ambulatory: walkway around the apse Apse: Semicircle east of the sanctuary Sanctuary: Contained the high altar Presbytery: Assisting priests sat here Choir: Where the choir/clergy assembled Transept: Horizontal part of the cross Nave: Where the public stood
Music happens in the Choir (duh) The Choir (architecture) is the place where the choir (singers) sat. Divided into 2 sides, decani & cantoris, which faced each other Rood screen separated the clergy & public Rood screen often wooden or stone, and highly decorated
So what did they sing? Gregorian Chant was the official music of the Catholic Church. Supposedly dictated by God to the Holy Spirit, who (in the form of a dove) sang it to Pope Gregory, who sang it to a scribe, who wrote it down. Much like a game of telephone Good story, bad history
Musical Style Smooth conjunct melodies Smooth conjunct melodies Stepwise motion & small leaps Stepwise motion & small leaps Nonmetric (no strong rhythm or beat) Nonmetric (no strong rhythm or beat) Melodies governed by 8 “modes” or scales Melodies governed by 8 “modes” or scales Mode: Pattern of whole & half steps Mode: Pattern of whole & half steps No sudden or climactic cadences No sudden or climactic cadences All this is aesthetically intentional! All this is aesthetically intentional!
For example… Chant from the Mass Ordinary Sanctus, Sanctus Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth Pleni sunt caeli et tua gloria Hosanna in excelsis Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domine Hosanna in excelsis
Writing it down Bodleian Library, MS add , f. 105v 11th century Written in neumatic notation
Notation evolves By the 14th century, square notation had replaced the older styles By the 14th century, square notation had replaced the older styles Note the use of a musical staff, a forerunner of our modern one Note the use of a musical staff, a forerunner of our modern one
But what is the Mass Ordinary? The texts of the Mass are divided into two main parts: Ordinary texts stay the same every day Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei Proper texts change every day Alleluia, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, etc. As time wears on, composers begin to focus on the Ordinary texts for polyphonic music.
Polyphony Polyphony probably existed in Italian medieval churches, but none survives. Polyphony probably existed in Italian medieval churches, but none survives. In the late 14th century, there is a surge of polyphonic sacred music in Italy In the late 14th century, there is a surge of polyphonic sacred music in Italy Johannes Ciconia ( ) Johannes Ciconia ( ) Son of a priest Son of a priest From France, but worked in Rome From France, but worked in Rome Style heavily influence by French music Style heavily influence by French music
Ciconia, Gloria (polyphonic) Gloria in excelsis Deo. Et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratia agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex caelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis….
Music in the City Secular music in medieval Tuscany took several forms: Madrigal Caccia Ballata Lauda Dance music
Madrigal Usually written for 2 voices Subjects often idyllic or pastoral Love was a popular theme Sometimes satirical Several 3-line stanzas and a closing couplet Closing couplet called ritornello Closing couplet called ritornello All stanzas had the same music All stanzas had the same music Eg. Jacopo da Bologna, Vestisse la cornachia
Caccia Flourished c Written for 2-3 equal voices, usually canonic, w the lowest voice set freely Means “hunt” or “chase” Irregular poetic forms, often w/ ritornello Descriptive vocal effects mimic the hunt Bird songs, horn calls, echos, etc. Eg. Francesco Landini, De! Dinmi tu
Ballata Flourished later than the madrigal & caccia Flourished later than the madrigal & caccia Originally a song to accompany dancing Originally a song to accompany dancing Usually for 2-3 voices Usually for 2-3 voices Similar to the French ballade in structure Similar to the French ballade in structure Francesco Landini ( ) Francesco Landini ( ) Leading composer of ballate Leading composer of ballate Blinded as a child by smallpox Blinded as a child by smallpox Eg. Landini, Non so qual I’ mia volglia Eg. Landini, Non so qual I’ mia volglia
Lauda Monophonic, vernacular songs Sung by lay confraternities and penitents in processions 13th c. Italy saw a penitential craze, laudesi companies increased, like Orsanmichele in Florence Quasi-sacred: religious texts, but not in Latin and not liturgical Eg. Laudate la surrectione
Other monophonic song Trovatori: like the French Troubadours Literally “finders of song” Often aristocratic, singer-songwriters Example of Troubadour song Beatriz, Countess of Dia- A chantar me’r Courtly love a popular theme
In conclusion Sacred music Gregorian Chant Some sacred polyphony Laude are quasi-sacred Secular Music Madrigal Caccia Ballata Dance music
To what purpose? Each type of music served a different function in society Chant was reserved for the liturgy itself, and was vital in meditation and indoctrination Laude provided devotional music Madrigals, Caccie, Ballate all sung by the nobility as entertainment.