2 Music in the ChurchCathedrals helped indoctrinate the public & reinforced the structure of power.Cruciform shapeOpen, ethereal spaces w/ high windowsAltar faced East, towards JerusalemVisual art was stylized and didacticProcessions & spectacle highlighted meaningMusic helped get the message out
3 People “heard” Mass Rood screen made a clear view impossible Public only took communion a few times a year (Easter, Christmas, etc.)Public did not participate in the Mass through responsesPublic clearly separated from clergyPublic did not understand Latin
4 Parts of the Cathedral Ambulatory: walkway around the apse Apse: Semicircle east of the sanctuarySanctuary: Contained the high altarPresbytery: Assisting priests sat hereChoir: Where the choir/clergy assembledTransept: Horizontal part of the crossNave: Where the public stood
6 Music happens in the Choir (duh) The Choir (architecture) is the place where the choir (singers) sat.Divided into 2 sides, decani & cantoris, which faced each otherRood screen separated the clergy & publicRood screen often wooden or stone, and highly decorated
9 So what did they sing?Gregorian Chant was the official music of the Catholic Church.Supposedly dictated by God to the Holy Spirit, who (in the form of a dove) sang it to Pope Gregory, who sang it to a scribe, who wrote it down.Much like a game of telephoneGood story, bad history
10 Musical Style Smooth conjunct melodies Stepwise motion & small leaps Nonmetric (no strong rhythm or beat)Melodies governed by 8 “modes” or scalesMode: Pattern of whole & half stepsNo sudden or climactic cadencesAll this is aesthetically intentional!
11 For example… Chant from the Mass Ordinary Sanctus, Sanctus Sanctus Dominus Deus SabaothPleni sunt caeli et tua gloriaHosanna in excelsisBenedictus qui venit in nomine Domine
12 Writing it down Bodleian Library, MS add. 30850, f. 105v 11th century Written in neumatic notation
13 Notation evolvesBy the 14th century, square notation had replaced the older stylesNote the use of a musical staff, a forerunner of our modern one
14 But what is the Mass Ordinary? The texts of the Mass are divided into two main parts:Ordinary texts stay the same every dayKyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus DeiProper texts change every dayAlleluia, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, etc.As time wears on, composers begin to focus on the Ordinary texts for polyphonic music.
15 PolyphonyPolyphony probably existed in Italian medieval churches, but none survives.In the late 14th century, there is a surge of polyphonic sacred music in ItalyJohannes Ciconia ( )Son of a priestFrom France, but worked in RomeStyle heavily influence by French music
16 Ciconia, Gloria (polyphonic) Gloria in excelsis Deo. Et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratia agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex caelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis….
17 Music in the CitySecular music in medieval Tuscany took several forms:MadrigalCacciaBallataLaudaDance music
18 Madrigal Usually written for 2 voices Subjects often idyllic or pastoralLove was a popular themeSometimes satiricalSeveral 3-line stanzas and a closing coupletClosing couplet called ritornelloAll stanzas had the same musicEg. Jacopo da Bologna, Vestisse la cornachia
19 CacciaFlourished cWritten for 2-3 equal voices, usually canonic, w the lowest voice set freelyMeans “hunt” or “chase”Irregular poetic forms, often w/ ritornelloDescriptive vocal effects mimic the huntBird songs, horn calls, echos, etc.Eg. Francesco Landini, De! Dinmi tu
20 Ballata Flourished later than the madrigal & caccia Originally a song to accompany dancingUsually for 2-3 voicesSimilar to the French ballade in structureFrancesco Landini ( )Leading composer of ballateBlinded as a child by smallpoxEg. Landini, Non so qual I’ mia volglia
21 Lauda Monophonic, vernacular songs Sung by lay confraternities and penitents in processions13th c. Italy saw a penitential craze, laudesi companies increased, like Orsanmichele in FlorenceQuasi-sacred: religious texts, but not in Latin and not liturgicalEg. Laudate la surrectione
22 Other monophonic song Trovatori: like the French Troubadours Literally “finders of song”Often aristocratic, singer-songwritersExample of Troubadour songBeatriz, Countess of Dia- A chantar me’rCourtly love a popular theme
24 In conclusion Sacred music Secular Music Gregorian Chant Some sacred polyphonyLaude are quasi-sacredSecular MusicMadrigalCacciaBallataDance music
25 To what purpose?Each type of music served a different function in societyChant was reserved for the liturgy itself, and was vital in meditation and indoctrinationLaude provided devotional musicMadrigals, Caccie, Ballate all sung by the nobility as entertainment.