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Elements of Music (continued) Musical “Style” Characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone, color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form in music.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of Music (continued) Musical “Style” Characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone, color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form in music."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Elements of Music (continued) Musical “Style”

3 Characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone, color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form in music The distinctive or unique sound of –One composer –A group of composers –A country –A period in history

4 Historical Musical Style Periods Middle Ages ( ) Renaissance ( ) Baroque ( ) Classical ( ) Romantic ( ) 20th century

5 Music of the Middle Ages Medieval Music ( )

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12 Feudal Society Three main social classes 1.Nobles (Kings, Queens, Knights, etc.) 2.Peasants (Serfs) 3.Clergy (Church People - priests, monks & nuns)

13 Knights/Nobility

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16 Clergy

17 Peasants

18 Medieval Sacred Music (religious) Most music in churches Churches centers of learning, culture, and power Most important musicians were priests

19 Gregorian Chant Prayer music for voices performed in churches; melodies set to sacred Latin texts, sung without accompaniment

20 Gregorian Chant (continued) Gregorian Chant was the official music of the Roman Catholic church - “the” church of Medieval Europe Named for Pope Gregory ( ) who was reputed to have assembled and standardized all basic chants required for church services of the time

21 ANONYMOUS - Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam (We have seen the star) Latin text Music has “otherworldly” quality –Not in minor or major, but a “church mode” –No beat Music has “eternal” quality –No “catchy” tune; motives don’t seem to repeat as expected; seems like it will go on forever and forever Monophony Uses melismas

22 Melisma* (not in textbook glossary) Many notes sung to one syllable of text Al - le- lu- ia Melismas

23 ANONYMOUS - Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam (We have seen the star) Beginning - Solo, then Choir –Alleluia Middle (verse) - Choir –We have seen his star in the east and are come with gifts to worship the Lord End - Choir sings beginning phrase –Alleluia

24 HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores (You successors) Hildegard of Bingen ( ) –Abbess of Rupertsberg in Germany –Amazingly talented and influential woman Religious mystic and philosopher Diplomat Wrote poetry, music, and musical drama Scientist and healer

25 HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores (You successors) Latin text Music has “otherworldly” quality –Not in minor or major, but a “church mode” –No beat Music has “eternal” quality –No “catchy” tune; motives don’t seem to repeat as expected; seems like it will go on forever and forever Monophony, performed with a drone Uses melismas, but less-long that Alleluia chant Larger pitch range than older Alleluia chant

26 Drone Long, sustained note or notes accompanying a melody

27 HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores (You successors) “You successors of the mightiest lion between the temple and the altar- You the masters in his household- As the the angles sound forth praises and are here to help the nations, you are among those who accomplish this, forever showing your care in the service of the lamb.”

28 Medieval Secular Music (Non-religious) Heard outside church in castles, taverns, and town squares –JONGLEURS travelling minstrels who performed music and acrobatics for popular entertainment

29 ANONYMOUS - Estampie Strong, regular BEAT (dance music) Fast triple meter 3 instruments –Rebec (bowed string) –Pipe (wind) –Psaltery (plucked string) Monophony (rebec & pipe) with drone (psaltery) Repetitive sounding; “catchy”

30 Important Musical Development in Middle Ages around 900 A.D. Birth of Polyphony

31 Organum (pl. Organa) Medieval polyphony that consists of Gregorian Chant and one or more additional melodic lines

32 Architectural Layers = Layers of Chant or Organum

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38 Birth of Polyphony simple organum "School" of Notre Dame (Leonin, Perotin); simple rhythmic notation invented ARS NOVA new system of notating rhythm monks add a 2 nd melody above chant chant stretched out and more lines of organum added above chant used for complex rhythms and syncopation

39 Notre Dame Cathedral Paris, France

40 GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - ( ) French composer Educated as priest Mostly worked as court official Wrote sacred and secular music

41 GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - Agnus Dei from Notre Dame Mass Agnus Dei part of MASS –MASS - sacred choral composition made up of five sections Kyrie (Lord have mercy) Gloria (Glory to God in the highest) Credo (I believe in one God) Sanctus (Holy, holy, holy, Lord of Hosts) Agnus Dei (Lamb of God)

42 GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - Agnus Dei from Notre Dame Mass Written for 4 voices NON-IMITATIVE POLYPHONY 3 sections = 3 lines of text each closed by cadences –“Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis” (Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us) –“Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis” (Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us –“Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: dona nobis pacem” (Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world, grant us peace) Chant stretched out in tenor voice Upper voices have faster melodies with syncopation Regular BEAT Harmony has dissonant parts

43 Musical Style Elements Early and Mid - Middle Ages (Chant) Late Middle Ages (Machaut) Rhythmno regular beat, free- flowing, creates "floating," "otherworldly" sound has regular beat, more complex, has syncopations Melodyuses melismas, very smooth (legato) uses melismas, more "jumpy" and less smooth Formsounds non-repetitive Dynamicsno changes, all one level Texturemonophonicpolyphonic (non-imitative); produces heavy, dense, thick sound Harmonynonemixture of consonance and dissonance; produces serious sound

44 BENART DA VENTADORN - La douza votz (The sweet voice) Troubadour song Monophony (voice) with improvised drone accompaniment (plucked string) “I have heard the sweet voice of the woodland nightingale and my heart springs up so that all the cares and the grievous betrayals love has given me are softened and sweetened; and I would thus be rewarded, in my ordeal, by the joys of others…”

45 BENART DA VENTADORN - La douza votz (The sweet voice) “In truth, every man leads a base life who does not dwell in the land of joy…” “One who is false, deceitful, of low breeding, a traitress has betrayed me, and betrayed herself…”


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